Bitcoin theft: $60m stolen from NiceHash marketplace ...
Bitcoin theft: $60m stolen from NiceHash marketplace ...
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Was bored at work, so got a guy fired and possibly sent to prison for fraud.
I work the night shift as a receptionist at a hotel in Norway, and most nights are spent watching Netflix/playing games. Last summer was really slow and I also worked a lot extra, so I ran out of stuff to watch and games to play. One night I got a mail from "Scooter". He wanted to book a room for almost 20 days. I just had to send him the price and confirmation that we had rooms available, and he would then send me his credit card info for me to pre-charge. Normally we just delete these kinds of mail, but I was bored out of my mind, so I responded with an offer for around 2k$ for the entire stay. Also made sure to inform him that he could cancel for free up until the day of arrival. This is probably the most common fraud attempt in the Hotel/travel industry. Unlike most businesses, we are able to charge credit/debit cards with only the card number and exp date. No need for a pin code, cvc or other auth methods. Our software also allow us deposit money directly to local and international bank accounts by using the card number. Because of this, shitheads like Scooter will try to prepay with stolen/skimmed cards, but then cancel the booking and asking us to refund the amount to a different card. A couple of hours after sending him the offer, he responded with a Visa number and told me to charge him as soon as possible. I checked the card with our validation software, and to my big surprise it did not belong to Scooter. (If validation succeeds, it will return with the card owners name 90% of the time) I sent him a new mail stating that the card was declined because of insufficient funds. He quickly replied and gave me a new card to try. Guess what, this one didn't belong to Scooter either. Wasn't even the same person as the first card. By checking the Bin codes, (6 first digits) I found which banks had issued the cards. Not even issued in the same country... My plan was to just call the banks and inform them of the attempted scam, but there where still several hours before I could go home, so I decided to fuck with Scooter a bit more. Sent him a reply that the second card went through, and also the "reference number" for his stay at our hotel. As expected, a couple hours later Scooter sent a mail cancelling the order and asked if we could refund the money to a different card, as he had lost his wallet and deactivated the card he paid with. This card was issued from a Polish bank. Not sure why, but Polish bank accounts are often used by people who want to launder money from bitcoins and drugs. You can buy a legit card for around 500$ that is registered to some guy/girl in Poland from darknet. At this point, Scooter were probably pretty happy about the 2k$ he soon would receive... I replied that it was no problem for me to transfer the $$ to a different card, as long as it was valid. How fun would it be to also cancel his "own" card, so that he had to spend 500$ for a new one? Not. Fun. Enough. In the last mail I wrote that he could send me the card number, but that our e-mail server would go down for maintenance in a few minutes, so my boss would do it on Monday. (It was now Saturday morning, so enough time for the "charged" bank to call us and reverse the transfer) If he needed the money right away, I told him to call the Hotel before I ended my shift @ 07:00. He called almost immediately, and I wrote down the card number and his phone number... Told him I transferred the money, and that it would be in his account by 12:00. My shift ended, and I went home with all the info Scooter had provided. Wanted to see if I could find out who he was, and ofc this idiot had an open Facebook profile that I found using his phone number... He even listed his address and employer. Looked a bit like the artist Scooter, but with even more fucked up face and spiky hair full of gel. He lived somewhere outside of London, in an area I would describe as a British trailer park. Houses that where nice at some point, but where the owners had spent 0£ on maintenance since it was built. Thrash everywhere, and broken windows that were boarded up or "fixed" by sealing holes with garbage. Now to the fun part. According to his FB profile, Scooter worked at a hotel! This meant that he would have access to card information from guests that booked through sites like Booking.com. I called the manager of the hotel, and told him there where reason to believe that one of his employees where trying to commit credit card fraud, and that the cards numbers could belong to their guests. Gave him the name of the people who owned the cards Scooter tried to pay with, and to no surprise both had stayed at the hotel. Told him it was Scooter, and the manager just exploded in anger. Not 100% sure what he said because he was screaming so loud, but I think Scooter wasn't a normal employee. He worked there through some kind of government training program or something. After talking to the manager, I called both Visa and Mastercard international and told them about Scooters little business venture. Apparently it's pretty easy to check if there are more cards that have been involved in fraud, where the cards also have been used at Hotel Scooter. With his Polish deposit account info, they would also be able to pin it on Scooter if he had been successful in scamming anyone, and sue him for the amount stolen. The police also called me later to get a statement regarding the whole situation, so I know that the manager reported it to the police. Not sure what happened to Scooter, but according to his Facebook profile, he no longer works at the hotel. (Or anywhere else as far as I can see)
Marcia Christoff-Kurapovna candidly describes her romantic longings for a "Man of the Right", in this week's oh-so-sneerable essay "How The Right Fails At Fascism" ... courtesy of the ultra-nationalist / ultra-capitalist / utra-rationalist / ultra-zionist / ultra-fascist / ultra-libertarian sibling websites "Tzarism" and "Tsionism" (credo: "every essay a sneerable essay"). Perhaps poetry can satisfy far-right romantic desires? --------- Incanto XLV With empathy hath no man a wallet of good bitcoins each hash-block smooth and well fitting that crypto might privatize their dealings, With empathy seeth no man Basiliska his hairs and his mathpets no fanfic is made to endure nor to live with but it is made to click and click often WITH EMPATHY oil comes not to market carbon assets bringeth no gain with empathy Empathy rusteth the modus ponens It rusteth the reason and the reasoners It gnaweth the blockchain None learneth to weave patterns of reason; CONTRA RATIONUM Chads swipe right on Stacies at behest of empathy. Empathy is a murrain. --------- Adapted from the Ezra Pound's (pro-fascist and anti-semitic) "Canto XLV: With Usura". Third in the series, "Poems retitled for modern rationalists"
I'm an Identity Thief and I Want My Identity Back [Part 1]
Found this on a darkweb forum. It was posted only yesterday, and I thought you all might find it interesting. Fair warning, there's supposedly more to come, according to the comments on the forum, so this isn't an all inclusive post. I decided to paste it here in real time as it was posted instead of waiting until they were done putting it all online. From here on out, this is a direct copy-paste of the post, plus some formatting for Reddit.
I fucked up. Badly. My whole life has been a great, big fuckup, but this really takes the cake. I'll be dead soon, so it can't get much worse. My name is Michael Kay, also known as Neale Keaton. If you're running your little bots trying to find my name, it'll match this post. Hello, my little darkweb stalkers. I'm about to give you my version of events. I'm about to show you that you're being played like the gullible little basement dwellers you are. So sit down, go fullscreen, and read this through to the end. Because I think that by the end, you'll see things my way.
I'm an identity thief. Have been for four years. When I got out of the military, I couldn't adjust back to "normal" life. I got stuck in the same cycle that other vets do. No job, living on savings from my military income, and trying to kick my drinking habit. After almost a year, I came to a brutal conclusion that is the reality for many people in this economy: my identity wasn't worth shit. I was only a few months away from homelessness, had no prospects at a job, and was lacking in the social etiquette needed for dating. I was an only child of two only children. Grandparents were all dead, and my parents... well, I wanted nothing to do with them. They were the reason I joined the military and left home at 18. Again, my identity was shit. But, my drunk and sometimes high brain had a thought that kept repeating itself. What if I were someone else? Someone with a good background. Some work experience, proof that I was a good employee, maybe even a degree. In the military, I got to share a training ground temporarily with some of the boys heading into the Army Cyber Command. We got a few chances to swap stories, and they talked about the things they were learning. One guy was especially cocking about how "good" he was at navigating the darkweb. He regaled us with stories about finding illegal identities and firearms online before he even joined the military. He told us that the darkweb was full of everything you'd need, legal or illegal. With that memory in mind, that's who I turned to. In a move that further diminished my savings, I bought myself a nice identity off the darkweb. A driver's license, social security number, the works. It came with years of taxes being paid on-time, and some falsified work experience. If I paid extra, the people I bought it from would even pick up the phone when the prospective employer called and recommend me as a good employee. They had a fake website for the company and everything. They even told me that their services were geared towards people like myself. Those unfortunate enough to have a bad identity. People who just needed the leg up of a trustworthy social security number. And it worked. I followed their guidelines, and true to their word, I got a job. From my Bachelor's degree in Business Management, I landed a position as a store manager for a small retail chain. During the day, I went to work and pretended I knew what the hell was going on. At night, I got a couple of dated self-help books from the library so I could make it look like I knew what I was doing with all the spreadsheets, scheduling, profit and loss statements, and anything else I was given. I worked hard. I didn't sit on my ass and let my identity carry me. I worked to earn what I'd been given, and it was the only way I could live with what I'd done. I was told that the identity was from a child who had died at birth, yet the social security number had not been discarded. The people I bought it from had "raised" that social security number. They hacked into school databases and inserted their name and grades, and did everything they needed to make the kid look like he'd grown into the man I was. Or rather, the man whose shoes I would step into. That identity saved me. But good things can't last forever.
While the identity gave me a second chance, it didn't give me good money. The job was good enough to subsist on, but after a year and then two years, I found that I was unable to save anything. At the rate I was going, I'd be working until I was 65 years old and yet have nothing to show for it. Once your basic needs are met, higher needs come into play. I learned that while reading books about business. Books about how to understand your customers. Even if all their basic needs are met, people are never satisfied. We crave purpose. We crave something higher. Something better. All the time and always. No matter how high you go, you'll always find something more to want. The same psychology that has been plaguing humanity for thousands of years, affected me. I didn't want to be a store manager my entire life. But I also wasn't sure what I wanted. So, I explored. I read even more books. I'd never read that much in my life, but I was on a mission. I was searching for something, some kind of meaning. I'd been given a second chance, and I wanted to do something with it. But I had no idea what it was. My first wrong decision, which led me to where I am now, came during work. I was manning a register while one of my employees took a break, and a customer left their debit card behind. I didn't notice it until a few customers later, when one held it up and said "I think someone forgot this." I took it, stuck it in the bottom of the cash drawer, and thanked that customer. My employee returned, and I went back to my office to work on more spreadsheets. At the end of their shift, the employee, whose register I had taken over, brought me the card. I told him I'd take care of it, and took it for safekeeping. As I turned it around in my hand after he left, my brain started to run things over in my head. I had questions. What was to stop me from sliding this card through the card reader at a register, choosing to process it as a credit card, and withdrawing cash? Who would know? How would they trace me? The store didn't have cameras. We were in a good enough neighborhood that my superior had decided not to pay for them. So, in all seriousness, who would know? Nobody.
My plan was devised while sitting in the office. It was just past lunch and time for a couple more employees to take breaks. I walked over, card in my pocket, and told the cashier that it was their time for a break. They happily walked to the break room, and I slipped into their place. The other cashier and I worked through a couple more customers, then we had nothing to do. The store wasn't busy during this time. I told the other cashier to take some returned merchandise and enter it into the inventory computer in the back. They obeyed, and I had my chance. Swiftly, I moved to the other cashier's register and typed on their machine. I logged in under their name. They were new, and I had just barely trained them on the system. I only knew their password because it was literally "1234567". I'd seen them type it so many times that I had incidentally memorized it. Their login was the key to my plan. With their account open, I scanned a pack of gum and rang out the "customer." I slid the card through the card reader, punched in $100 in cash to withdraw, and waited for the approval. Ding. Approved. The cash drawer popped open, I extracted a couple tens, some fives, and a 20 before slamming it closed. I snatched the receipt, stuffed everything into my pocket, including the gum, and went back to my register. When the other cashier returned, I told them I needed a few minutes in my car. That's where I hid the gum, receipt, and cash. On my way back in, I used my shirt to wipe the card clean of any fingerprints. I dropped it by the curb on my way into the store, stomping on it a couple of times to make it look abused. Taking a deep breath, I walked back inside. Son of a bitch. It worked.
There was never and kickback from that experiment. The customer never came to the register asking about their card, and the card disappeared from the curb outside before the end of the day. I suspect that the customer found it there when they came back for their card. I'm willing to guess that the customer talked to their bank about the extra transaction. The bank probably refunded them and gave them a new card, and the police never showed up asking questions. At home, I burned the receipt and the gum pack. I burned the gum pack so the barcode could never be traced to me. Just in case. To celebrate, I used the cash to treat myself to a very expensive dinner that night. All the evidence was gone, and I was clear and free. And the thrill was exactly what I'd been searching for.
From there, I brainstormed and even researched better ways to accomplish what I wanted. My goals were two-fold: 1) Make a decent chunk of money. Generate enough to save for long-term goals and happiness. 2) Not harm the identities of those who I used. And, of course, not get fucking caught. Generally, I planned this out by attacking many targets for small amounts, maybe a hundred dollars or less. If I hit six to ten targets a month, that'd be anywhere from $600 to $1000 extra a month. Which was enough. There were a lot of technical details that I had to plan for. I couldn't keep using my store: it was too obvious and the police would be on me in a month easily. I also couldn't use the same city. Some debit cards wouldn't let you withdraw cash without a pin. I got lucky the first time. And, what if the customer didn't have $100 in their account? I had to look at contingencies for contingencies. I also had to set rules for myself. Don't use an ATM. Don't use cards in stores that have cameras. Stay with crowds and look for cameras outside each store, like in the parking lots. Don't deposit the cash you took into your own bank account. Don't put it in a safety deposit box either. All kinds of rules based on my research and contingency planning. I bought a pen-camera off of ebay which I used while going to the store. I used it to film the person in front of me obscurely. I always got in line behind a man, too. When they pulled their card out, they often held it around their chest, like they wanted people to see their card. Rarely did people try to obscure their pins. At home, I would pull the video from my camera for the day and hope that at least one card was legible enough that I could extract the card number, expiration date, and name. A lot of people like to stand in line with their card on the counter until it's their time to pay. Or they hold it over the card reader like it's a race and they're waiting for the gun to fire. It's ridiculously easy for someone like me to extract that info with a camera. I set up an account on the darkweb where I would submit the card information, and a shiny, newly printed debit or credit card would show up in the mail. They routed the envelope through a network of darkweb "MailMen" so the envelope never even used the actual postal service. I would scuff the card up a bit, validate the data on my own card reader that I purchased through another darkweb service, and queue it up for use. I had a queue system so the cards were never used in perfect order, and were used a few months after I had snatched their information. I was grabbing information in stores that had cameras, so I wanted there to be time between when I grabbed it and when I used it. Sometimes this meant that the card went out of service before I could use it. But I was collecting enough cards that it didn't matter. I had no way to know if the cards would work, so before going to pay, I would have a contact buy a song on an obscure site using the card. It was a site that didn't require the security code printed on the back of regular cards, since I didn't have those codes. My phone would buzz after the transaction went through or failed, and I'd know whose card was next to be used. I'd get in, pay, withdraw cash, take the receipt, then leave. After each money run, I'd burn all the evidence and hide my cash. I had a good contingency plan for if a cashier asked for my ID. It was too expensive to get an ID for every card I planned to use once. So, I had my acting always ready to go. "Can I see your ID?" "Crap, that's my boyfriend's card, he's out in the car. We're just getting cash to pay the neighborhood kid who takes care of our lawn." If the cashier asked me to go and get my "boyfriend", I'd leave the store and never come back. But they always bought the excuse. And apparently I play a gay guy pretty well. Who would've thought?
I know what you're probably thinking. "God damn, Michael, get to the important parts! Blah, blah blah!" I don't get to brag much about what I've done and how clever it was, so I'm taking my last opportunity before I'm probably shot. So fuck off. During all of this, where it went on for three months without so much as a hiccup, I was doing other research. I was making more money, but those needs came back again and I found myself needing more. How could I make money faster? I'd ask myself that all the time, and skim the darkweb for methods that would work for me. That's when I turned to credit card fraud of the mail-in card variety. A new formula for making money right this second began to form. I used a feature of the MailMan darkweb service to set up a mailing address that would forward all mail to me. Then, I went online and bought a few hundred sets of personal data that were probably hacked from some company's database. Using this personal data, I signed up for three to four credit cards for each person. With those cards, I bought things online that I already intended to purchase for myself. Once the items arrived, I paid off the balance on the credit cards with my hard-earned money using prepaid cards that I bought with cash. Then, after a month or two of using the card, I would withdraw $100 in cash at a store. And then I'd store the card in my hiding place, never to be used again. If anyone ever looked at their credit reports and saw the credit card, it would look suspicious and odd, but would only be a $100 balance. They would, hopefully, just pay it off, close the card, and stop caring. Besides, my use of the card boosted their credit score. I paid the bills and fees on time, and kept the card open as long as I could afford, paying the yearly premium out of my own pocket. It was my way of saying thanks that they'd never hear. You give me some money, I help you boost your credit score. A symbiotic relationship. I even thought I'd earned the title of "ethical credit card scammer." No one, especially not the police, would see it that way, but that's how I justified my actions to myself. My mistake came from not researching my "clients" before I used their identity and their card. That's what got me caught. But not by the police.
I'd gotten used to the current routine to the point where I could do it in my sleep. I was making good money, much better compared to before. I kept my job as a store manager, and it felt so much more fulfilling because I was making the money I needed overall, and had something to look forward to: the thrill of identity theft. After some cautious planning, I rented out a nice, two-story duplex in one of my "client's" names and credit score. I kept my payments on-time and was the perfect tenant. The duplex's owner only did a soft pull on this client's credit, so it wouldn't show up on their credit report. Regardless, I had a contact on the darkweb set up some monitoring for this identity online. He assured me that if anything went wacky with the credit that made it seem like the client was suspicious or investigating, I'd get a text. I wanted a heads up if I needed to ditch my place. One month. It only took one month for them to find me. In the digital world, you would think one month was a long time, but it was too short for me. Too unexpected. I was in bed, sleeping, when I heard the front door squeak open. My eyes shot open. A million fears and thoughts ran through my head. It didn't matter if it was just a thief or the FBI. Either way, the police would be involved, and I'd be caught. I rolled out of bed silently. Watching my half-open bedroom door, I grabbed my sheets and spread them tight across my bed. I wanted to make it look like no one was home. Snatching my wallet and keys from the bedside table, I dropped to the ground and rolled under my bed. The boxes I kept under the bed for storage hid me from view once I arranged them. Footsteps came up the stairs. I wished I'd thought to buy a gun. But buying a gun took heavy background checks, and I hadn't figured out how to bypass those yet. Heavy boots tried to sneak down the hall. I saw two of them, one behind the other. Both black and menacing. They moved like they had training, but not much. From the way the floor bent under each step, they were both probably heavy around the belly. The door opened as they entered the room. Upon seeing the empty bed, they paused, unsure of what to do next. One of them whispered, loud enough that I could hear. "Not home." "So we wait." I bit my lip and cursed internally. They were looking for me, whoever they were. Probably not cops: they wore jeans, not uniforms. They could be plainclothes, sure, but I just felt that they weren't cops. I heard the front door squeak again, but the two men were too busy whispering to notice. I wondered if the door was just open in the wind. My reply came in the form of a voice from the hall. "Evening, fellas. Hands where I can see them." Shit. A cop. This guy's feet moved gracefully under him. Definitely trained. Suddenly, the two men rushed the cop, and I watched him fall as they shoved their way past him. Through the dimness, I could see that it wasn't a cop at all. It was Jack, my neighbor across the street. He was ex-military, like me, though he'd been in the service a lot longer than I had. I heard the front door fly open and slam shut as the two would-be thieves left the house. Jack stayed on the ground, sighing. He probably figured that pursuit wasn't worth the trouble. I weighed my options before finally pushing boxes out of the way and crawling out from under the bed. Jack watched, surprised. "You were under there the whole time?" He asked. "They weren't here long, thanks to you." Jack eyed my perfectly made bed, then where I'd crawled from. "Smart tactic for hiding. I'll have to remember that one." "Thanks." We stood in the dark for a minute, feeling awkward for different reasons. "Listen..." I said. "I'm grateful that you came and chased these assholes out, but can we not call the police? They didn't take anything, I'm not hurt, and I really don't want to deal with the hassle." Jack chuckled. "I was about to ask you the same thing." I looked at him in confusion. He lifted his gun, pointing it at the ceiling and showing it to me. It was a 92FS Beretta. Sleek, shiny, and well oiled. "This girl here is illegal for me to have. I have a small rap sheet from before the military, but am still not allowed to own a gun of my own. So, I'm going to agree that we don't involve the cops." "It's beautiful," I said, trying not to gasp from relief. "She sure is," he grinned. "Jack, thank you," I said, extending my hand. "Any time," he said, shaking my hand.
I wondered for a few days about those thieves. There's no way they broke into my house by random chance. They were looking for me: they'd verbally confirmed that. So who were they? Why did they want me? I thought myself into dead end after dead end. There wasn't anything I could do until I had more information. And yet, I had no way to get more information. I was stuck in limbo until they tried again, if they truly were looking for me, or until I could stop double checking my locks at night.
One night, as I lay in bed reading a book as usual, my phone rang. The duplex had actually come with a cordless phone system, which was humorous considering our cell-phone dominated world. I answered it, not knowing who it was. "Hello?" "Hi, Neale. Listen, just wanted to give you a heads up. There's a weird car that's been parked outside my house for hours. People were lying down and taking a nap for a while, but perked up when you got home. Now they've got cameras aimed at your house. Don't come to the window and try to look, they'll see. I just wanted to call and tell you that before I go and talk to them." What the hell. Breaking in is one thing, but now surveillance? Who did they think I was? Unfortunately, that was the question I should have pursued long before things got worse. "Did you get their license plate?" I asked. "And their make and model." "Can I have it before you talk to them?" "Sure," Jack said. He gave me the info, and I told him I'd call him back in a bit. To his credit, Jack didn't even question what I was doing or why I wasn't freaking out and calling the cops. I connected to Tor and sought out a darkweb site that had a backdoor into my state's DMV registration database. Only one or two states have those backdoors, and mine is one of them. Lucky for me. I put in the license plate number and the results came back. I paid my $25 fee with the usual Bitcoin, and opened the word doc that came back. Registered to one Charles B. Matsworth. With an address across the state from me. The database backdoor didn't transmit images, so I couldn't compare their driver's license photo with the people in the car. I was either dealing with Charles himself, or a stolen vehicle. Helpful, but also potentially not. I hit up another darkweb site and searched for Charles. I paid my fee, then the results populated. Except there were no results. There were ALWAYS results, but this guy's name wasn't there. Which was impossible with this site. It passively picked up every name tossed around the internet and provided you with links to where it was mentioned. But there were no results. Which means someone was actively scrubbing this guy's name from the web. So, that's when I knew he was one of you, darkweb. I hit redial on my home phone and got Jack back on the line. It was just past 11pm. "Hey, Neale," he answered. "Hey," I said, resisting the urge to peer through the blinds. "I can't look, obviously, but have you seen anything else helpful about them?" Jack paused, probably looking out the window. "Passenger is a heavy smoker: there's a small pile of cigarette butts on his side and he's smoking one right now. They've got some Arby's wrappers on their front dash. Driver is using a telescopic lens on a pretty expensive camera. Canon, I think. Two coffee cups from a gas station in the cup holders. Car looks pretty new, just a little dust. If you took it through a car wash, it would probably shine. I'm guessing it's a new model." I listened to him observe them, spouting off anything that he thought might be useful. "Any of that help you out?" He asked. "Maybe," I said, trying to think what I should do. Scare them off and let them know I'm onto them? Let them sit there and spy, hoping they don't decide to physically enter? Leave out the back? My bedroom light was on, so they knew I was home. My shadow had probably played against it a few times tonight too. This was a situation I didn't have a contingency for. "You should come over to my house. Sneak out around back, walk a block over, and come in through my back door," Jack said. "We can spy on the spies." I considered it. Last time, we had scared off the thieves and not gotten any useful information. This was the most useful situation since that night. I should take advantage of it. "Okay, I'll do that," I said. I gave him my mobile phone number so he could use that instead of the home phone. I made my way to the back door and left, locking it behind me. Going straight back and over the back fence, I went to the next street over, then jogged three streets down to crawl through someone else's yard and into Jack's. He was waiting at the sliding glass door when I got there. "No movement, they're still staring at the house and talking occasionally." "Any idea what they're saying?" I asked, hopeful. "Nope." I walked into his living room, and found his setup. He had a pair of binoculars on a coffee table, and a few slats of his blinds were held open by paper clips. "Have a look," he said, waving me into the room. "Need some water?" "Yes, please," I said, picking up the binoculars. Through the blinds, I saw the two men in their car, both heads turned towards my house. It was exactly as Jack had described. The streetlight was far away, so I couldn't make out hair colors, but one had longer hair than the other. That was about all I could make out. Jack appeared beside me and set a glass of water on the table. "Recognize them?" He asked. "No," I muttered, setting down the binoculars. "You in some kind of trouble, Neale? Borrow money from the wrong guys? Or are these just private investigators from your ex-wife trying to track you down for child support?" Jack's tone was light and joking. He honestly didn't seem to give a shit what kind of trouble I was in. "Not that I know of," I said weakly, turning back to the window. "Maybe they're after the guy who lived there before me?" "Could be," Jack said, sitting on the couch. I turned back around to face him while he watched me with the slightest smile on his face. "Thank you, again, for helping me figure this out," I said. "I haven't had this much fun since my last tour. I haven't had any action since. This is exciting and refreshing, Jack. I'm happy to help." I nodded, taking a seat as well, but keeping the window within sight. "So, it's not money, it's not women. Is it drugs? No judgement from me, man." "No drugs either," I said, trying to do my own thought process. For half a second, I considered telling Jack about myself. Then I realized how asinine of an idea that was. He'd probably kick my ass for stealing. "I say we watch 'em. We won't learn anything by running out there and scaring them off. But maybe they'll do something that gives us an idea of what they're up to," Jack said. It was the same conclusion I'd come to, so I agreed. We watched them in silence for about an hour. I was perfectly okay not talking to Jack, and he seemed okay not talking to me. We took turns at the window, and if something interesting seemed to start happening, we'd wave the other one over to look. Nothing interesting happened until almost 1am. They both got out of their seats and exited the car. Each one stretched, then pulled pistols out of their belts. They examined their guns, cocked them, and made their way to my house, side by side. I waved Jack over, and he watched them try my front door, find it locked, then go around back. "I have an idea," Jack hissed, suddenly shoving something into my hand. His Beretta. "If they come out, open the front door and yell to me. If they start shooting, you shoot back. Give me cover to get back into the house." "What are you doing?!" I hissed back as he grabbed at the front door. "Getting some information!" He said before shutting the door. I watched him drop to a low crouch and crab-walk his way to their car, which was parked at the edge of his sidewalk. The passenger window was open from the smoker, so he leaned into the car and rustled around. I watched my house, heart beating sharply. I saw a shadow pass by my bedroom window. They would have found me not in bed by now. They could be leaving soon. I made my way to the front door and opened it a crack. "Jack!" I whispered. "They made it to my bedroom! Hurry up!" I shut the door, and ran back to the window, careful not to disturb the blinds. With the binoculars, I inspected my house. The figure was still by my window, and Jack was still rummaging through the car. The figure moved away from my window, and I dashed back to the door. "They're coming!" I called. Jack didn't waste time. He got up and bolted for the door. I shut the front door as he entered, and we both went to the window. The men came back around my house and got back into their car. I thought they would wait around until I came home, but the car started, and they drove away. We both watched the tail lights disappear. When they were gone, I turned back to Jack, who had dumped handfuls what he was carrying onto the coffee table. "Receipts," he said. "I didn't see any badges for policemen or private detectives. Car is registered to Charles B. Matsworth, but the address is blurred out on the papers." I blurted out half the address before I caught myself. Jack looked at me funny, but didn't ask. "I guess grabbing the receipts was useless," he chuckled. "I was gonna say we could plot the receipts on a map and try to figure out where they came from." "That's still a good idea," I said. "That address is for Charles, not necessarily where these guys came from." "Pretty sure these guys are criminal. Sure you don't want to hand this off to the police?" Jack asked. My heart skipped a beat, and I tried to sound nonchalant. "No, I don't want to get the police involved unless it's serious." Jack laughed out loud. "They pulled guns, then went into your house in the middle of the night. I'd say it's pretty serious, Neale." "Okay, okay, I'll level with you," I said. "I've done some stuff and still have an outstanding warrant. If I go to the cops, I'll be arrested." That was enough of the truth to be a convincing argument. Jack pondered that for a bit. "What'd you do?" He asked. "Unpaid speeding ticket," I said quickly with a shrug. "50 in a 35. That was a few months ago. If I go now, before paying the ticket, I'll probably get arrested." Jack nodded with a slight smile. "Okay, Neale. We'll investigate it ourselves until you get your ticket paid. Then we'll get the police involved." I swallowed hard. I didn't intend to ever get the police involved. So I had to resolve this fast.
Hello! My name is Slava Mikhalkin, I am a Project Owner of Crowdsale platform at Platinum, the company that knows how to start any ICO or STO in 2019. If you want to avoid headaches with launching process, we can help you with ICO and STO advertising and promotion. See the full list of our services: Platinum.fund I am also happy to be a part of the UBAI, the first educational institution providing the most effective online education on blockchain! We can teach you how to do ICO/STO in 2019. Today I want to tell you how to sell and transfer cryptocurrencies. Major Exchanges In finance, an exchange is a forum or platform for trading commodities, derivatives, securities or other financial instruments. The principle concern of an exchange is to allow trading between parties to take place in a fair and legally compliant manner, as well as to ensure that pricing information for any instrument traded on the exchange is reliable and coherently delivered to exchange participants. In the cryptocurrency space exchanges are online platforms that allow users to trade cryptocurrencies or digital currencies for fiat money or other cryptocurrencies. They can be centralized exchanges such a Binance, or decentralized exchanges such as IDEX. Most cryptocurrency exchanges allow users to trade different crypto assets with BTC or ETH after having already exchanged fiat currency for one of those cryptocurrencies. Coinbase and Kraken are the main avenue for fiat money to enter into the cryptocurrency ecosystem. Function and History Crypto exchanges can be market-makers that take bid/ask spreads as a commission on the transaction for facilitating the trade, or more often charge a small percentage fee for operating the forum in which the trade was made. Most crypto exchanges operate outside of Western countries, enabling them to avoid stringent financial regulations and the potential for costly and lengthy legal proceedings. These entities will often maintain bank accounts in multiple jurisdictions, allowing the exchange to accept fiat currency and process transactions from customers all over the globe. The concept of a digital asset exchange has been around since the late 2000s and the following initial attempts at running digital asset exchanges foreshadows the trouble involved in attempting to disrupt the operation of the fiat currency baking system. The trading of digital or electronic assets predate Bitcoin’s creation by several years, with the first electronic trading entities running afoul of the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) in late 2004. Companies such as Goldex, SydneyGoldSales, and Ozzigold, shut down voluntarily after ASIC found that they were operating without an Australian Financial Services License. E-Gold, which exchanged fiat USD for grams of precious metals in digital form, was possibly the first digital currency exchange as we know it, allowing users to make instant transfers to the accounts of other E-Gold members. At its peak in 2006 E-Gold processed $2 billion worth of transactions and boasted a user base of over 5 million people. Popular Exchanges Here we will give a brief overview of the features and operational history of the more popular and higher volume exchanges because these are the platforms to which newer traders will be exposed. These exchanges are recommended to use because they are the industry standard and they inspire the most confidence. Bitfinex Owned and operated by iFinex Inc, the cryptocurrency trading platform Bitfinex was the largest Bitcoin exchange on the planet until late 2017. Headquartered in Hong Kong and based in the US Virgin Island, Bitfinex was one of the first exchanges to offer leveraged trading (“Margin trading allows a trader to open a position with leverage. For example — we opened a margin position with 2X leverage. Our base assets had increased by 10%. Our position yielded 20% because of the 2X leverage. Standard trades are traded with leverage of 1:1”) and also pioneered the use of the somewhat controversial, so-called “stable coin” Tether (USDT). Binance Binance is an international multi-language cryptocurrency exchange that rose from the mid-rank of cryptocurrency exchanges to become the market dominating behemoth we see today. At the height of the late 2017/early 2018 bull run, Binance was adding around 2 million new users per week! The exchange had to temporarily disallow new registrations because its servers simply could not keep up with that volume of business. After the temporary ban on new users was lifted the exchange added 240,000 new accounts within two hours. Have you ever thought whats the role of the cypto exchanges? The answer is simple! There are several different types of exchanges that cater to different needs within the ecosystem, but their functions can be described by one or more of the following: To allow users to convert fiat currency into cryptocurrency. To trade BTC or ETH for alt coins. To facilitate the setting of prices for all crypto assets through an auction market mechanism. Simply put, you can either mine cryptocurrencies or purchase them, and seeing as the mining process requires the purchase of expensive mining equipment, Cryptocurrency exchanges can be loosely grouped into one of the 3 following exchange types, each with a slightly different role or combination of roles. Have you ever thought about what are the types of Crypto exchanges?
Traditional Cryptocurrency Exchange: These are the type that most closely mimic traditional stock exchanges where buyers and sellers trade at the current market price of whichever asset they want, with the exchange acting as the intermediary and charging a small fee for facilitating the trade. Kraken and GDAX are examples of this kind of cryptocurrency exchange. Fully peer-to-peer exchanges that operate without a middleman include EtherDelta, and IDEX, which are also examples of decentralized exchanges.
Cryptocurrency Brokers: These are website or app based exchanges that act like a Travelex or other bureau-de-change. They allow customers to buy or sell crypto assets at a price set by the broker (usually market price plus a small premium). Coinbase is an example of this kind of exchange.
Direct Trading Platform: These platforms offer direct peer-to-peer trading between buyers and sellers, but don’t use an exchange platform in doing so. These types of exchanges do not use a set market rate; rather, sellers set their own rates. This is a highly risky form of trading, from which new users should shy away.
To understand how an exchange functions we need only look as far as a traditional stock exchange. Most all the features of a cryptocurrency exchange are analogous to features of trading on a traditional stock exchange. In the simplest terms, the exchanges fulfil their role as the main marketplace for crypto assets of all kinds by catering to buyers or sellers. These are some definitions for the basic functions and features to know: Market Orders: Orders that are executed instantly at the current market price. Limit Order: This is an order that will only be executed if and when the price has risen to or dropped to that price specified by the trader and is also within the specified period of time. Transaction fees: Exchanges will charge transactions fees, usually levied on both the buyer and the seller, but sometimes only the seller is charged a fee. Fees vary on different exchanges though the norm is usually below 0.75%. Transfer charges: The exchange is in effect acting as a sort of escrow agent, to ensure there is no foul play, so it might also charge a small fee when you want to withdraw cryptocurrency to your own wallet. Regulatory Environment and Evolution Cryptocurrency has come a long way since the closing down of the Silk Road darknet market. The idea of crypto currency being primarily for criminals, has largely been seen as totally inaccurate and outdated. In this section we focus on the developing regulations surrounding the cryptocurrency asset class by region, and we also look at what the future may hold. The United States of America A coherent uniform approach at Federal or State level has yet to be implemented in the United States. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network published guidelines as early as 2013 suggesting that BTC and other cryptos may fall under the label of “money transmitters” and thus would be required to take part in the same Anti-money Laundering (AML) and Know your Client (KYC) procedures as other money service businesses. At the state level, Texas applies its existing finance laws. And New York has instituted an entirely new licensing system. The European Union The EU’s approach to cryptocurrency has generally been far more accommodating overall than the United States, partly due to the adaptable nature of pre-existing laws governing electronic money that predated the creation of Bitcoin. As with the USA, the EU’s main fear is money laundering and criminality. The European Central Bank (ECB) categorized BTC as a “convertible decentralized currency” and advised all central banks in the EU to refrain from trading any cryptocurrencies until the proper regulatory framework was put in place. A task force was then set up by the European Parliament in order to prevent and investigate any potential money laundering that was making use of the new technology. Likely future regulations for cryptocurrency traders within the European Union and North America will probably consist of the following proposals: The initiation of full KYC procedures so that users cannot remain fully anonymous, in order to prevent tax evasion and curtail money laundering. Caps on payments that can be made in cryptocurrency, similar to caps on traditional cash transactions. A set of rules governing tax obligations regarding cryptocurrencies Regulation by the ECB of any companies that offer exchanges between cryptocurrencies and fiat currencies It is less likely for other countries to follow the Chinese approach and completely ban certain aspects of cryptocurrency trading. It is widely considered more progressive and wiser to allow the technology to grow within a balanced accommodative regulatory framework that takes all interests and factors into consideration. It is probable that the most severe form of regulation will be the formation of new governmental bodies specifically to form laws and exercise regulatory control over the cryptocurrency space. But perhaps that is easier said than done. It may, in certain cases, be incredibly difficult to implement particular regulations due to the anonymous and decentralized nature of crypto. Behavior of Cryptocurrency Investors by Demographic Due to the fact that cryptocurrency has its roots firmly planted in the cryptography community, the vast majority of early adopters are representative of that group. In this section we cover the basic structure of the cryptocurrency market cycle and the makeup of the community at large, as well as the reasons behind different trading decisions. The Cryptocurrency Market Cycle Bitcoin leads the bull rally. FOMO (Fear of missing out) occurs, the price surge is a constant topic of mainstream news, business programs cover the story, and social media is abuzz with cryptocurrency chatter. Bitcoin reaches new All Timehigh (ATH) Market euphoria is fueled with even more hype and the cycle is in full force. There is a constant stream of news articles and commentary on the meteoric, seemingly unstoppable rise of Bitcoin. Bitcoin’s price “stabilizes”, In the 2017 bull run this was at or around $14,000. A number of solid, large market cap altcoins rise along with Bitcoin; ETH & LTC leading the altcoins at this time. FOMO comes into play, as the new ATH in market cap is reached by pumping of a huge number of alt coins. Top altcoins “somewhat” stabilize, after reaching new all-time highs. The frenzy continues with crypto success stories, notable figures and famous people in the news. A majority of lesser known cryptocurrencies follow along on the upward momentum. Newcomers are drawn deeper into crypto and sign up for exchanges other than the main entry points like Coinbase and Kraken. In 2017 this saw Binance inundated with new registrations. Some of the cheapest coins are subject to massive pumping, such as Tron TRX which saw a rise in market cap from $150 million at the start of December 2017 to a peak of $16 billion! At this stage, even dead coins or known scams will get pumped. The price of the majority of cryptocurrencies stabilize, and some begin to retract. When the hype is subsiding after a huge crypto bull run, it is a massive sell signal. Traditional investors will begin to give interviews about how people need to be careful putting money into such a highly volatile asset class. Massive violent correction begins and the market starts to collapse. BTC begins to fall consistently on a daily basis, wiping out the insane gains of many medium to small cap cryptos with it. Panic selling sweeps through the market. Depression sets in, both in the markets, and in the minds of individual investors who failed to take profits, or heed the signs of imminent collapse. The price stagnation can last for months, or even years. The Influence of Age upon Trading Did you know? Cryptocurrencies have been called “stocks for millennials” According to a survey conducted by the Global Blockchain Business Council, only 5% of the American public own any bitcoin, but of those that do, an overwhelming majority of 71% are men, 58% of them are between the ages of 18 and 35, and over half of them are minorities. The same survey gauged public attitude toward the high risk/high return nature of cryptocurrency, in comparison to more secure guaranteed small percentage gains offered by government bonds or stocks, and found that 30% would rather invest $1,000 in crypto. Over 42% of millennials were aware of cryptocurrencies as opposed to only 15% of those ages 65 and over. In George M. Korniotis and Alok Kumar’s study into the effects of aging on portfolio management and the quality of decisions made by older investors, they found “that older and experienced investors are more likely to follow “rules of thumb” that reflect greater investment knowledge. However, older investors are less effective in applying their investment knowledge and exhibit worse investment skill, especially if they are less educated and earn lower income.” Geographic Influence upon Trading One of the main drivers of the apparent seasonal ebb and flow of cryptocurrency prices is the tax situation in the various territories that have the highest concentrations of cryptocurrency holders. Every year we see an overall market pull back beginning in mid to late January, with a recovery beginning usually after April. This is because “Tax Season” is roughly the same across Europe and the United States, with the deadline for Income tax returns being April 15th in the United States, and the tax year officially ending the UK on the 6th of April. All capital gains must be declared before the window closes or an American trader will face the powerful and long arm of the IRS with the consequent legal proceedings and possible jail time. Capital gains taxes around the world vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction but there are often incentives for cryptocurrency holders to refrain from trading for over a year to qualify their profits as long term gain when they finally sell. In the US and Australia, for example, capital gains are reduced if you bought cryptocurrency for investment purposes and held it for over a year. In Germany if crypto assets are held for over a year then the gains derived from their sale are not taxed. Advantages like this apply to individual tax returns, on a case by case basis, and it is up to the investor to keep up to date with the tax codes of the territory in which they reside. 2013 Bull run vs 2017 Bull run price Analysis In late 2016 cryptocurrency traders were faced with the task of distinguishing between the beginnings of a genuine bull run and what might colorfully be called a “dead cat bounce” (in traditional market terminology). Stagnation had gripped the market since the pull-back of early 2014. The meteoric rise of Bitcoin’s price in 2013 peaked with a price of $1,100 in November 2013, after a year of fantastic news on the adoption front with both Microsoft and PayPal offering BTC payment options. It is easy to look at a line going up on a chart and speak after the fact, but at the time, it is exceeding difficult to say whether the cat is actually climbing up the wall, or just bouncing off the ground. Here, we will discuss the factors that gave savvy investors clues as to why the 2017 bull run was going to outstrip the 2013 rally. Hopefully this will help give insight into how to differentiate between the signs of a small price increase and the start of a full scale bull run. Most importantly, Volume was far higher in 2017. As we can see in the graphic below, the 2017 volume far exceeds the volume of BTC trading during the 2013 price increase. The stranglehold MtGox held on trading made a huge bull run very difficult and unlikely. Fraud & Immoral Activity in the Private Market Ponzi Schemes Cryptocurrency Ponzi schemes will be covered in greater detail in Lesson 7, but we need to get a quick overview of the main features of Ponzi schemes and how to spot them at this point in our discussion. Here are some key indicators of a Ponzi scheme, both in cryptocurrencies and traditional investments: A guaranteed promise of high returns with little risk. Consistentflow of returns regardless of market conditions. Investments that have not been registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Investment strategies that are a secret, or described as too complex. Clients not allowed to view official paperwork for their investment. Clients have difficulties trying to get their money back. The initial members of the scheme, most likely unbeknownst to the later investors, are paid their “dividends” or “profits” with new investor cash. The most famous modern-day example of a Ponzi scheme in the traditional world, is Bernie Madoff’s $100 billion fraudulent enterprise, officially titled Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities LLC. And in the crypto world, BitConnect is the most infamous case of an entirely fraudulent project which boasted a market cap of $2 billion at its peak. What are the Exchange Hacks? The history of cryptocurrency is littered with examples of hacked exchanges, some of them so severe that the operation had to be wound up forever. As we have already discussed, incredibly tech savvy and intelligent computer hackers led by Alexander Vinnik stole 850000 BTC from the MtGox exchange over a period from 2012–2014 resulting in the collapse of the exchange and a near-crippling hammer blow to the emerging asset class that is still being felt to this day. The BitGrail exchange suffered a similar style of attack in late 2017 and early 2018, in which Nano (XRB) was stolen that was at one point was worth almost $195 million. Even Bitfinex, one of the most famous and prestigious exchanges, has suffered a hack in 2016 where $72 million worth of BTC was stolen directly from customer accounts. Hardware Wallet Scam Case Study In late 2017, an unfortunate character on Reddit, going by the name of “moody rocket” relayed his story of an intricate scam in which his newly acquired hardware wallet was compromised, and his $34,000 life savings were stolen. He bought a second hand Nano ledger into which the scammers own recover seed had already been inserted. He began using the ledger without knowing that the default seed being used was not a randomly assigned seed. After a few weeks the scammer struck, and withdrew all the poor HODLer’s XRP, Dash and Litecoin into their own wallet (likely through a few intermediary wallets to lessen the very slim chances of being identified). Hardware Wallet Scam Case Study Social Media Fraud Many gullible and hapless twitter users have fallen victim to the recent phenomenon of scammers using a combination of convincing fake celebrity twitter profiles and numerous amounts of bots to swindle them of ETH or BTC. The scammers would set up a profile with a near identical handle to a famous figure in the tech sphere, such as Vitalik Buterin or Elon Musk. And then in the tweet, immediately following a genuine message, follow up with a variation of “Bonus give away for the next 100 lucky people, send me 0.1 ETH and I will send you 1 ETH back”, followed by the scammers ether wallet address. The next 20 or so responses will be so-called sockpuppet bots, thanking the fake account for their generosity. Thus, the pot is baited and the scammers can expect to receive potentially hundreds of donations of 0.1 Ether into their wallet. Many twitter users with a large follower base such as Vitalik Buterin have taken to adding “Not giving away ETH” to their username to save careless users from being scammed. Market Manipulation It also must be recognized that market manipulation is taking place in cryptocurrency. For those with the financial means i.e. whales, there are many ways in which to control the market in a totally immoral and underhanded way for your own profit. It is especially easy to manipulate cryptos that have a very low trading volume. The manipulator places large buy orders or sell walls to discourage price action in one way or the other. Insider trading is also a significant problem in cryptocurrency, as we saw with the example of blatant insider trading when Bitcoin Cash was listed on Coinbase. Examples of ICO Fraudulent Company Behavior In the past 2 years an astronomical amount of money has been lost in fraudulent Initial Coin Offerings. The utmost care and attention must be employed before you invest. We will cover this area in greater detail with a whole lesson devoted to the topic. However, at this point, it is useful to look at the main instances of ICO fraud. Among recent instances of fraudulent ICOs resulting in exit scams, 2 of the most infamous are the Benebit and PlexCoin ICOs which raised $4 million for the former and $15 million for the latter. Perhaps the most brazen and damaging ICO scam of all time was the Vietnamese Pincoin ICO operation, where $660million was raised from 32,000 investors before the scammer disappeared with the funds. In case of smaller ICO “exit scamming” there is usually zero chance of the scammers being found. Investors must just take the hit. We will cover these as well as others in Lesson 7 “Scam Projects”. Signposts of Fraudulent Actors The following factors are considered red flags when investigating a certain project or ICO, and all of them should be considered when deciding whether or not you want to invest. Whitepaper is a buzzword Salad: If the whitepaper is nothing more than a collection of buzzwords with little clarity of purpose and not much discussion of the tech involved, it is overwhelmingly likely you are reading a scam whitepaper. Signposts of Fraudulent Actors §2 No Code Repository: With the vast majority of cryptocurrency projects employing open source code, your due diligence investigation should start at GitHub or Sourceforge. If the project has no entries, or nothing but cloned code, you should avoid it at all costs. Anonymous Team: If the team members are hard to find, or if you see they are exaggerating or lying about their experience, you should steer clear. And do not forget, in addition to taking proper precautions when investing in ICOs, you must always make sure that you are visiting authentic web pages, especially for web wallets. If, for example, you are on a spoof MyEtherWallet web page you could divulge your private key without realizing it and have your entire portfolio of Ether and ERC-20 tokens cleaned out. Methods to Avoid falling Victim Avoiding scammers and the traps they set for you is all about asking yourself the right questions, starting with: Is there a need for a Blockchain solution for the particular problem that a particular ICO is attempting to solve? The existing solution may be less costly, less time consuming, and more effective than the proposals of a team attempting to fill up their soft cap in an ICO. The following quote from Mihai Ivascu, the CEO of Modex, should be kept in mind every time you are grading an ICO’s chances of success: “I’m pretty sure that 95% of ICOswill not last, and many will go bankrupt. ….. not everything needs to be decentralized and put on an open source ledger.” Methods to Avoid falling Victim §2 Do I Trust These People with My Money, or Not? If you continue to feel uneasy about investing in the project, more due diligence is needed. The developers must be qualified and competent enough to complete the objectives that they have set out in the whitepaper. Is this too good to be true? All victims of the well-known social media scams using fake profiles of Vitalik Buterin, or Bitconnect investors for that matter, should have asked themselves this simple question, and their investment would have been saved. In the case of Bitconnect, huge guaranteed gains proportional to the amount of people you can get to sign up was a blatant pyramid scheme, obviously too good to be true. The same goes for Fake Vitalik’s offer of 1 ether in exchange for 0.1 ETH. Selling Cryptocurrencies, Several reasons for selling with the appropriate actions to take: If you are selling to buy into an ICO, or maybe believe Ether is a safer currency to hold for a certain period of time, it is likely you will want to make use of the Ether pair and receive Ether in return. Obviously if the ICO is on the NEO or WANchain blockchain for example, you will use the appropriate pair. -Trading to buy into another promising project that is listing on the exchange on which you are selling (or you think the exchange will experience a large amount of volume and become a larger exchange), you may want to trade your cryptocurrency for that exchange token. -If you believe that BTC stands a good chance of experiencing a bull run then using the BTC trading pair is the suitable choice. -If you believe that the market is about to experience a correction but you do not want to take your gains out of the market yet, selling for Tether or “tethering up” is the best play. This allows you to keep your locked-in profits on the exchange, unaffected by the price movements in the cryptocurrency markets,so that you can buy back in at the most profitable moment. -If you wish to “cash out” i.e. sell your cryptocurrency for fiat currency and have those funds in your bank account, the best pair to use is ETH or BTC because you will likely have to transfer to an exchange like Kraken or Coinbase to convert them into fiat. If the exchange offers Litecoin or Bitcoin Cash pairs it could be a good idea to use these for their fast transaction time and low fees. Selling Cryptocurrencies Knowing when and how to sell, as well as strategies to inflate the value of your trade before sale, are important skills as a trader of any product or financial instrument. If you are satisfied that the sale itself of the particular amount of a token or coin you are trading away is the right one, then you must decide at what price you are going to sell. Exchanges exercise their own discretion as to which trading “pairs” they will offer, but the most common ones are BTC, ETH, BNB for Binance, BIX for Bibox etc., and sometimes Tether (USDT) or NEO. As a trader, you decide which particular cryptocurrency to exchange depending on your reason for making that specific trade at that time. Methods of Sale Market sell/Limit sell on exchange: A limit sell is an order placed on an exchange to sell as soon as (also specifically only if and when) the price you specified has been hit within the time limit you select. A market order executes the sale immediately at the best possible price offered by the market at that exact time. OTC (or Over the Counter) selling refers to sale of securities or cryptocurrencies in any method without using an exchange to intermediate the trade and set the price. The most common way of conducting sales in this manner is through LocalBitcoins.com. This method of cryptocurrency selling is far riskier than using an exchange, for obvious reasons. The influence and value of your Trade There are a number of strategies you can use to appreciate the value of your trade and thus increase the Bitcoin or Ether value of your portfolio. It is important to disassociate yourself from the dollar value of your portfolio early on in your cryptocurrency trading career simply because the crypto market is so volatile you will end up pulling your hair out in frustration following the real dollar money value of your holdings. Once your funds have been converted into BTC and ETH they are completely in the crypto sphere. (Some crypto investors find it more appropriate to monitor the value of their portfolio in satoshi or gwei.) Certainly not limited to, but especially good for beginners, the most reliable way to increase your trading profits, and thus the overall value and health of your portfolio, is to buy into promising projects, hold them for 6 months to a year, and then reevaluate. This is called Long term holding and is the tactic that served Bitcoin HODLers quite well, from 2013 to the present day. Obviously, if something comes to light about the project that indicates a lengthy set back is likely, it is often better to cut your losses and sell. You are better off starting over and researching other projects. Also, you should set initial Price Points at which you first take out your original investment, and then later, at which you take out all your profits and exit the project. That should be after you believe the potential for growth has been exhausted for that particular project. Another method of increasing the value of your trades is ICO flipping. This is the exact opposite of long term holding. This is a technique in which you aim for fast profits taking advantage of initial enthusiasm in the market that may double or triple the value of ICO projects when they first come to market. This method requires some experience using smaller exchanges like IDEX, on which project tokens can be bought and sold before listing on mainstream exchanges. “Tethering up” means to exchange tokens or coins for the USDT stable coin, the value of which is tethered to the US Dollar. If you learn, or know how to use, technical analysis, it is possible to predict when a market retreatment is likely by looking at the price movements of BTC. If you decide a market pull back is likely, you can tether up and maintain the dollar value of your portfolio in tether while other tokens and coins decrease in value. The you wait for an opportune moment to reenter the market. Market Behavior in Different Time Periods The main descriptors used for overall market sentiment are “Bull Market” and “Bear Market”. The former describes a market where people are buying on optimism. The latter describes a market where people are selling on pessimism. Fun (or maybe not) fact: The California grizzly bear was brought to extinction by the love of bear baiting as a sport in the mid 1800s. Bears were highly sought after for their intrinsic fighting qualities, and were forced into fighting bulls as Sunday morning entertainment for Californians. What has this got to do with trading and financial markets? The downward swipe of the bear’s paws gives a “Bear market” its name and the upward thrust of a Bull’s horns give the “Bull Market” its name. Most unfortunately for traders, the bear won over 80% of the bouts. During a Bull market, optimism can sometimes grow to be seemingly boundless, volume is rising, and prices are ascending. It can be a good idea to sell or rebalance your portfolio at such a time, especially if you have a particularly large position in one holding or another. This is especially applicable if you need to sell a large amount of a relatively low-volume holding, because you can then do so without dragging the price down by the large size of your own sell order. Learn more on common behavioral patterns observed so far in the cryptocurrency space for different coins and ICO tokens. Follow the link: UBAI.co If you want to know how do security tokens work, and become a professional in crypto world contact me via Facebook to get all the details: Facebook
Ether Thief Remains Mystery Year After $55 Million Digital Heist
Ether Thief Remains Mystery Year After $55 Million Digital Heist 2017-06-13 08:00:18.224 GMT By Matthew Leising (Bloomberg Markets) -- Summer colds are the worst, and Emin Gün Sirer had caught a wicked bug from his 1-year-old son. So it was with watering eyes and a stuffy nose that the associate professor of computer science at Cornell found himself working from his sickbed on Monday, June 13, 2016. Gün—everyone calls him Gün—couldn’t tear himself away from his laptop. He had another type of bug in his sights, a flaw in a line of computer code he feared put $250 million at risk of being stolen. It wasn’t just any code. It was the guts of the newest breakthrough in software design related to blockchain, the novel combination of decentralized computing and cryptography that gave life to the virtual currency bitcoin in 2009. Since then, the promise of blockchain to transform industries from finance to health care has captured imaginations in corporate boardrooms and governments alike. Yet what the Turkish-born professor was exploring that Monday was the next leap forward from bitcoin, what’s known as the ethereum blockchain. Rather than moving bitcoin from one user to another, the ethereum blockchain hosts fully functioning computer programs called smart contracts—essentially agreements that enforce themselves by means of code rather than courts. That means they can automate the life cycle of bond payments, say, or ensure that pharmaceutical companies can authenticate the sources of their drugs. Yet smart contracts are also new and mostly untested. Like all software, they are only as reliable as their coding—and Gün was pretty sure he’d found a big problem. In an email sent to one of his graduate students, Philip Daian, at 7:30 p.m., Gün noted that the smart contract he was looking at might have a problem—on line 666. (They say the devil is in the details.) Gün feared the bug could allow a hacker to make unlimited ATM-like withdrawals from the millions, even if the attacker, who’d have needed to be an investor, had only $10 in his account. This staggering amount of money lived inside a program called a decentralized autonomous organization, or DAO. Dreamed up less than a year earlier and governed by a smart contract, the DAO was intended to democratize how ethereum projects are funded. Thousands of dreamers and schemers and developers who populate the cutting edge of computer science, most of them young, had invested in the DAO. This was real money, a quarter of a billion dollars, their money, meant to build a better version of the world, and every cent was at risk. Gün, who wears his dark hair short and looks a decade younger than his 45 years, had already been tracking and publicizing flaws in the DAO’s design. A few weeks earlier, on May 27, along with two colleagues, he’d urged investors to stop buying into the DAO until security issues could be fixed. It had been too late, however, and the program went live the next day. Smart contracts such as the DAO are built to be entirely reliant on their code once released on the ethereum blockchain. That meant the DAO code couldn’t be fixed. Other blockchain experts—including Peter Vessenes, co-founder of the Bitcoin Foundation—had also pointed out security flaws in the smart contract, but Gün appears to be the first to pinpoint the flaw that put the money in jeopardy. The problem was the code was so new that no one knew what to expect—or even if there was actually a problem in the first place. Gün had his doubts, too. This wasn’t even his job. He does this for fun. Daian didn’t think they’d found anything either. Over email, he said, “We might be up the creek ;).” Later, when Gün pointed to the error in line 666, Daian replied, “Don’t think so.” Gün says, “We don’t sound the alarm bell every time we find a bug that seems suspicious.” Instead, he went to bed to try to kill his cold—the one bug he knew to be real. “I was too miserable to sort it out,” he says. Four days later, Christoph Jentzsch lay on the floor of his home office, taking deep breaths, trying not to panic. It was Friday morning, and software developers all over the Western world were waking up to the news that the DAO, which Jentzsch had created, was being attacked. Gün had been right. Jentzsch, who has dark hair and a perpetual five o’clock shadow, lives with his family in the Mittweida region of Germany, a rural spot not far from the Czech border. Mornings in the Jentzsch household are a whirlwind as he and his wife get their five children—age 2 to 9—fed and off to school. Yet today, after his brother Simon woke him with a call that the DAO was being hacked, Jentzsch had to ignore his familial duties. “You’ve got the kids,” he told his wife. “I have an emergency.” This is the story of one of the largest digital heists in history. And while you may have heard last year that hackers breached Swift, the bank-to-bank messaging system, and stole $81 million from Bangladesh’s central bank, the DAO attack is in a different category altogether. It played out in front of anyone who cared to watch and couldn’t be stopped. Just as the global WannaCry ransomware attack in May laid bare weaknesses in computer operating systems, the DAO hack exposed the early frailties of smart-contract security and left many in the community shaken because they hadn’t found the bug in time. The aftermath would eventually pit good hackers against bad ones—the white hats vs. the black hats—in the strange and futuristic- sounding DAO Wars. The roots of the DAO belong to an idea Jentzsch borrowed from another internet-fueled phenomenon: crowdfunding. The 32- year-old Jentzsch, a theoretical physicist by training, and a few colleagues started Slock.it in 2015. As they considered how to fund the company, Jentzsch approached it as many had—sell a digital currency, effectively a token, to raise cash. But why should each new startup have to program its own initial coin offering? Jentzsch wondered. What if one huge fund ruled them all? He introduced his idea to the world at DevCon 1 in London in November 2015. “What is the blockchain way of creating a company?” Jentzsch asked his audience. “Of course, it has to be a DAO.” It would work like this: Ether, a virtual currency like bitcoin, would be used to fund and develop applications on the ethereum blockchain—things such as making a music app similar to iTunes or a ride-sharing service along the lines of Uber. Investors would buy DAO tokens with their ether; the tokens would allow them to vote to fund projects they liked. If the app they backed made money, the token holder shared in the profit. In the six months he spent creating the DAO, Jentzsch thought it would raise $5 million. From April 30 to May 28, the DAO crowdfunding pulled in $150 million. That’s when ether traded just below $12. As the price of ether rose in the following weeks to $20.75 the day before the attack, so too did the value of the DAO, putting a $250 million target on this thing Jentzsch had unknowingly brought into the world with a fatal, original sin. “Our hope was it would be the center of a decentralized sharing economy,” says Jentzsch, who now regrets not capping the amount raised. “For such a big experiment, it was way too early.” In the weeks after the attack, Jentzsch and the rest of the ethereum community would come to grips with their own crisis that, writ small, echoed the bank bailouts and government rescues of 2008. “It became too big to fail,” he says. But why would anyone invest in the DAO in the first place? It has something to do with the strain of digital libertarianism at the heart of the ethereum community, much like the set of beliefs that led to the birth of bitcoin. Think of bitcoin as the first global currency whose use can’t be stopped by governments or corporations; on top of that, bitcoin is almost impossible to hack. Ethereum, then, is another level beyond. It’s an uncensorable global computer. As amazing and unprecedented as that is, it’s also a bit terrifying. Brought to life, the DAO ended up staggering off the table and turning on the community that wanted it so badly. Accustomed to working into the night to stay in touch with colleagues in North America, Jentzsch blows off steam by jogging or kayaking on the nearby Zschopau River. Yet on that Friday morning, he had the more pressing task of pulling himself up off the floor and dealing with the attack. “I went into emergency mode: Don’t try to save the DAO,” he says. “No, it’s over.” It was far from over. Several hours later and half a world away from the Jentzsch household in Mittweida, Alex Van de Sande was waking up in his apartment in the Copacabana neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro. The baby-faced ethereum developer had been born in the small fishing village of Santa Cruz Cabrália in the Bahia region of Brazil and moved with his parents to Rio when he was about 3 years old. These days he’s known as “avsa” on Reddit and Twitter. After reaching for his phone to see why it was blowing up with Skype messages, he turned to his wife and said, “Remember when I was telling you about that huge unhackable pile of money?” She nodded. “It’s been hacked,” he told her. His first thought was to get his DAO tokens out. He owned about 100,000 of them, valued at about $15,000 at the time. He’s the lead designer of the Ethereum Wallet app, a program that allows him and anyone else to interact with the blockchain. Van de Sande scrambled to log in to it, but his password didn’t work. It was glitching, and as he worked to fix it, his panic subsided. He realized he shouldn’t be bailing on the DAO but trying to save it. And to do that, he needed Griff. Griff Green, who’s worked variously as a massage therapist in Los Angeles and a community organizer in Seattle, is one of only a handful of people in the world who holds a master’s degree in digital currencies. He got it online, natch, from the University of Nicosia. A self-described “dreamer,” the 32-year- old is the closest thing Ethereumville has to a mayor. Green knows everybody; in fact, he’d been the first to relay word of the attack to Simon, Jentzsch’s brother and a co-founder of Slock.it. Green had been working for Slock.it for about six months by then and woke up that morning in the house belonging to Jentzsch’s mom in Mittweida. Jentzsch is one of nine children, so his mother had a spare bedroom where she could put Green up for a few days. Using his extensive contacts, Green started identifying as many people as he could who were interacting with the DAO—going so far as to ask strangers to send pictures or scans of their IDs—in an attempt to sort friend from foe. And then something strange happened: The attack stopped working. In the six hours since the attack began, the thief had managed to steal 30 percent of the DAO’s 12 million ether—which that day equaled about $55 million. “We don’t even understand why the guy had stopped,” says Van de Sande. Now Green raced to protect the remaining 70 percent of the DAO the attacker hadn’t stolen. Once Van de Sande got in touch with Green in Germany, along with two or three others, the foundation was laid for what would become known as the Robin Hood group—white hat hackers who’d devise a bold good-guy plan to drain the remaining DAO. To save the DAO, they’d have to steal the remaining ether, then give it back to its rightful owners. And yet as they scrambled that Friday, qualms emerged within the group. “What does it even mean to hack something?” Van de Sande asks. No one knew if what they were about to do was legal. Also, wouldn’t their hack look just as bad as the theft they were trying to stop? Then there were the practical issues. “Who pushes the button?” he remembers wondering. Doing so would initiate their counterattack and alert the community. “Someone has to push the button.” The price of ether the night before the attack had hit an all-time high of just above $20. News of the hack sent it tumbling to $15 by the end of Friday, wiping out almost a half- billion dollars in market value. At that price, the DAO still held $125 million, and the Robin Hood group worried the attack would resume. They might be the only line of defense if it did, so Van de Sande agreed to use his DAO tokens to fuel their counterattack, thereby becoming a public face of the group. At this point, it might help to think of the DAO as the spacecraft in Alien after Ripley initiates the self-destruct sequence. To flee, she’s forced to use an escape pod. DAO investors had to initiate a similar sequence to deploy escape pods that would allow them to get their ether out of the DAO. The code that dictated the escape pods’ behavior is where the bug lived, so to steal the remaining DAO funds the Robin Hood group would have to be in a pod to exploit the flaw—and because of the way Jentzsch wrote the DAO, they had only a short window of time and just a few pods to choose from. A few minutes before launching the attack, Van de Sande joked on the group’s Skype chat, “Let’s go rob a bank!” No one laughed. “Not everyone really appreciated the humor,” he says. In his Copacabana apartment, Van de Sande readied to push the button on his laptop. Then, suddenly, he lost his internet connection. His router was down. “I was like, What the f--- is going on here?” he says. He had less than 30 minutes left to execute the Robin Hood hack. He frantically called NET, his Brazilian internet service provider, but couldn’t get past the automated customer service experience. He says the robotic voice told him, “We see there’s an internet issue in your neighborhood.” The irony was not lost on him: Here he was trying to steal millions of dollars from a robot but was being waylaid by another robot. “Then we missed,” he says. The window closed. He went from the high of feeling like they were about to come to the rescue of the vulnerable DAO to the crushing low of having their international connection severed by NET’s breakdown. He took his dog, Sapic—named after the one in Pedro Almodóvar’s All About My Mother—for a walk, then crawled into bed, defeated. The next morning was Saturday, and Van de Sande tried to reconvene the Robin Hood group to infiltrate another escape pod. But folks were busy and couldn’t get together. “We felt like the worst hackers in history,” Van de Sande says. “We were foiled by bad internet and family commitments.” Who, exactly, were they at war with? No one really knows, but there are some clues. One address the attacker used is 0xF35e2cC8E6523d683eD44870f5B7c C785051a77D. Got that? Like everything else in a blockchain, a user’s address is an anonymous string of characters. But every address leaves behind a history on the blockchain that’s open for examination. Not that it makes sense to 99.9 percent of humankind, but Green gets it. To pull off his heist, the attacker needed to create a contract that would interact with the DAO. He did so on June 15 and deployed it in the early morning hours two days later, according to Green. Once activated, the attack contract started sending about $4,000 worth of ether through the attacker’s account every three or four minutes to drain the DAO. But where did the original money to fund the attack come from? To interact with the ethereum blockchain, every contract must be funded by an amount of ether. This attack contract was funded by two addresses, but tracing it further back becomes tricky. That’s because the second address used an exchange called ShapeShift to send 52 ether into its account on June 14. ShapeShift doesn’t collect any information on its users and says it turns one virtual currency, such as bitcoin, into another, like ether, in less than 10 seconds. While there are valid reasons for using ShapeShift, it’s also a great way to launder digital assets and cover your tracks. After the attack contract stopped working, the thief needed to deploy it again, says Green. He tried but failed, and after a few more transactions, the hack whimpered to an end. (One possible reason the attack stopped, Green says, is that the hacker’s tokens became corrupted, which means he had no way to exploit the bug.) We know this limited amount of one-sided information from the blockchain’s public record. Digital asset exchanges see both sides. An internal investigation by one such exchange concluded that the DAO attacker was likely part of a group, not a lone wolf, based in Switzerland, according to an executive there who wouldn’t speak on the record or allow the company’s name to be used. Exchanges are in the unique position of being able to analyze the trading activity of their customers because they know who they are, even if they’re anonymous on the blockchain. The executive says the exchange shared the analysis with the Boston office of the FBI, though there’s been no further contact since October of last year. Cornell’s Gün says he also spoke to the Boston office of the FBI—and to agents in the New York office and to the New York State Attorney General’s Office. “It’s very difficult to coordinate an attack of this kind without leaving breadcrumbs behind,” Gün says. He encouraged the FBI to look at the ethereum testnet, where programmers can run their code in a safe environment to work out kinks. The attacker wouldn’t just launch such a complicated hack without testing it, Gün says he told federal officials, and the feds might be able to get clues to his identity there. Gün says he also pointed them to addresses linked to the attacker, such as the one described above, that were listed by his grad student Daian on his blog. (The FBI declined to comment.) “I’m absolutely amazed. Why has no one traced this back and found out who did it?” asks Stephan Tual, the third co-founder of Slock.it. “It still bugs me to this day, because what that person has done is incredibly unethical.” On Tuesday, four days after the initial attack, the hacker returned and somehow resumed the heist. The Robin Hood group had feared this moment would come and was ready. Early Sunday morning they’d finally managed to convene online and successfully infiltrate an escape pod, but had held off their counterattack. Now they had no choice. One strike against the group was their distance from one another—one in Rio, others scattered about Europe. (Some of the group’s members didn’t want to be identified for this story.) It was important that they coordinate their activities because, like in Charlie’s Angels, they all had different specialties: Green the community organizer, Van de Sande the public face, others who wrote the Robin Hood group attack contracts. So Van de Sande needed to be walked through the step-by-step hacking process they were about to unleash, because that wasn’t his area of expertise. “I’ll be honest, I was excited,” Green says. “This is the craziest thing that’s ever happened to me. This is the craziest thing that’s almost ever happened to anyone.” Whether it was legal remains an unanswered question. “You literally have cyber ninjas warring on the blockchain,” says Vessenes, the programming expert. “What they’re doing is almost certainly illegal, but they’re claiming it’s for the greater good.” And now it was Van de Sande’s job to let the community know that the Robin Hood group counterattack was benign. He took to Twitter, where he wrote “DAO IS BEING SECURELY DRAINED. DO NOT PANIC.” A nod to the classic Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, his plea to not panic was met with all the snark and real-life concern Twitter can handle. “NOTHING SAYS DO NOT PANIC LIKE ALL CAPS,” one user responded. “#RealLife is more exciting than
MrRobot !!” tweeted another. Yet as the Robin Hood group attack
gained steam, they noticed something strange and worrisome—the attacker was with them in every escape pod. “We escaped the mother ship, but now we’re alone in space with the alien we were trying to escape,” says Van de Sande. This was a big problem. Because of how Jentzsch wrote his code, the Robin Hood group would have to wait several weeks before they could secure the ether they recovered. Yet if the attacker was in that escape pod with the group, he could just follow them—what’s known as a stalking attack. If the hacker stalked the Robin Hood group, the ether wasn’t really safe after all. “The game only ends when one of these parties doesn’t show up to fight,” Van de Sande says. This, in essence, is the heart of the DAO Wars, the never-ending battle that would have to be waged to keep the recovered ether safe. If only there were a way to reverse the theft once and for all. What happened next is one of the strangest and most contentious episodes in blockchain’s early history. The morning of July 20 dawned cool and clear in Ithaca, N.Y., the home of Cornell. A weeklong ethereum boot camp on campus had brought developers and programmers from all over the world to town. The mood was anxious, but not because the workshops were about to begin. This was the day the ethereum community would decide to rewrite the past. The weeks since the DAO hack had been filled with acrimonious debate as developers, coders, investors, and other community members considered their options to undo the theft. As the Robin Hood group battled the attacker mostly in private, a public debate was raging. The white hat hackers weren’t the only ones trying to save the DAO. Jentzsch worked almost around the clock, fielding hundreds of requests from DAO investors on what they should do. Vitalik Buterin, 23, who created the ethereum blockchain before he was 20, became a focal point as he led the community through their options. In short, what they could do was change the ethereum blockchain to fix the DAO, but only if they got a majority of computers running the network to agree to a software update. Pull that off, and it’s as though the attack never happened. This is known as a hard fork. The decision stirred such strong reactions that it remains controversial a year later, both within the ethereum community and with bitcoin users who insist a blockchain’s history is never to be tampered with. In an interview in October, Buterin was unapologetic about pushing for the change. “Some bitcoin users see the hard fork as in some ways violating their most fundamental values,” said Buterin, who didn’t respond to requests to speak specifically about this story. “I personally think these fundamental values, pushed to such extremes, are silly.” Within the ethereum community, at least, Buterin’s views won the day, and computer nodes all over the world accepted the fork. Contained in block 1,920,000, the fix to the DAO was simple and did only one thing—if you had ether invested in it, you could now get it out. But why hadn’t the attacker made off with his money? It had been more than a month. The same code that exposed the DAO to the theft, in the end, enabled the ether to be returned. Everything to do with the DAO is a parameter: rules, if-then statements, and more rules that are all finalized before the program is set loose. One of these parameters stated that anyone wanting to get their ether out of the DAO had to wait a certain amount of time—27 days after the initial request, then another seven days. This fail-safe, written by Jentzsch, applied to the attacker as well. So even though somebody had effectively robbed a bank, he then had to wait 34 days before crossing the street to make his getaway. While he was waiting, the money was stolen back. A month after the original heist, the ether thief now had nothing to show for his caper. Back on the Cornell campus, ethereum boot camp attendees celebrated. The next day, Gün brought Champagne to the session he was teaching. He’d pasted makeshift labels on the Chandon bottles with a picture of the utensil that said, “Congratulations on the successful fork.” Then something else unexpected happened. The original ethereum blockchain, the one with the DAO attack in it, kept growing. Imagine a hard fork is a branch of a tree that sprouts in a different direction at the end of the main limb. The end of that limb is supposed to wither after a hard fork, but here it continued to grow as a small group of users continued to process transactions on that version of the blockchain. Instead of dying, this became a second form of ethereum, quickly dubbed ethereum classic, complete with a digital currency that now had value. Even in the science fiction world of blockchain, this was an unprecedented turn of events. It meant the DAO attacker suddenly had about 3.6 million ethereum classic coins in his DAO account, known as the DarkDAO, which were slowly gaining in value. The Robin Hood group held about 8.4 million, because in this parallel universe they still controlled 70 percent of the DAO funds they had recovered. The Robin Hood group couldn’t believe it. “We did everything to avoid this, but now we’re being dragged back into this fight,” Van de Sande says. Now, the bitcoin supporters who viewed the hard fork as a violation of the core values of blockchain could back up their belief by buying ethereum classic. That’s exactly what entrepreneur Barry Silbert, a heavyweight in bitcoin circles, did. “Keep in mind, the original chain is ethereum classic,” he says. “The fork is ethereum.” Putting his money where his mouth is, Silbert’s firm, Grayscale Investments, recently issued an investment thesis outlining the benefits to ethereum classic over ethereum. A section heading sums up the rationale: “The DAO and the Death of Principles.” Alexis Roussel, co-founder of Bity.com, a digital currency broker in Switzerland, still marvels at the aftereffects of the hard fork and the wild world of the blockchain. “This is something that doesn’t happen in traditional finance,” he says. “If something happens with Apple, you don’t suddenly have a clone of Apple.” It’s been about a year since the DAO attack, enough time to take stock of what went wrong. Van de Sande is eager to move on. “It was really just a blip,” he says. “We are ready to move past it and leave the DAO story behind us.” Green, who’s organizing an ethereum conference at this summer’s Burning Man festival in the Nevada desert, has kept a sense of humor about it. “The Robin Hood group was just a s--- show,” he says with a laugh. “I hope the movie portrays it better than it actually was.” As for the bug itself, apparently many smart people looked at the code before Gün but missed one major flaw. The order of commands in the code allowed DAO token holders to withdraw any profit they’d made from their investments. It reads “withdrawRewardFor(msg.sender)” and adds, almost improbably, a note to anyone reading the code that says, “be nice, and get his rewards.” That’s line 667—let’s call it “The Neighbor of the Beast Bug.” If the withdraw line had come after these lines: totalSupply -= balances[msg.sender]; balances[msg.sender] = 0; paidOut[msg.sender] = 0; return true; the attack wouldn’t have been possible, Jentzsch says. But if the code had been in the correct order, the reward parameter wouldn’t have worked. As for the note, this line of code was meant to allow investors to withdraw any profit—“Reward”—their investments had earned. Instead it became one of the biggest backdoors in hacking history. It would have been better to not pay rewards during the split function from the DAO, what we’ve been referring to here as the escape pods, according to Jentzsch. Another decision he made when he had no idea of the bug shows how quirky and unforgiving code can be. “If the capital ‘T’ in line 666 had been a small ‘t,’ that would also have prevented the hack,” he says. Jentzsch has many regrets but insists no one was aware of the specific problems in lines 666-667 (other observers had pointed to flaws in other lines, just not here). Had more people looked, “it would have made no difference at all,” he says. “If you don’t know what to look for in a security audit, you won’t find it.” Even Gün, who had it in his grasp, let it go. “I still missed it,” he says. Green’s emotions are still raw related to Gün. “I actually got really pissed at him about this,” Green says. “He started bragging about how he found the bug.” He adds that it was “very irresponsible of him to not tell anyone of his inkling.” Still, Green “respects the hell out of Gün” and says they’ve since made amends. Asked to recount that night last June as he lay sick in bed, Gün says, “I came away from this thinking there’s potentially an issue.” But he’d consulted Daian, his grad student (“whom I trust”). Daian had said it’s “not exploitable.” Gün says that had he been certain of the danger, “I would have told people.” In a blog post that explained the mechanics of the DAO heist Daian published the night of the attack, he gave a shoutout to his professor in the acknowledgments. “Gün, we were so damn close—sorry it wasn’t quite enough this time :),” Daian wrote. As for the attacker (whoever he or she or they are) and the ethereum classic booty, Gün says, “Great, wonderful, he should cash out.” The hard fork proved it wasn’t just the DAO that needed to be fixed, but the ethereum blockchain itself. He says: “The fault lies somewhere on the system side as well.” But the fear that smart contracts are too clever by half and that by extension so is the ethereum blockchain itself—prevalent in the days following the DAO attack—has dissipated. At least that’s the market’s verdict, judging by the price of ether. After the attack, it traded from $10 to $12 for about nine months. Then in March it took off; it’s valued at $341.19 as of June 12. (That would have valued the DAO at $4.1 billion, but let’s not even go there.) Ethereum classic has risen as well, and it now trades for $18.71. Both versions of ether remain viable, in other words. The thief holds one; the revisionists, the other. Going forward, the choice is really: Whom would you rather believe? Since the hard fork, the attacker ended up making off with his ethereum classic. That means he got away with about $67.4 million, assuming the stash hasn’t been sold. Not too shabby, 0xF35e2cC8E6523d683eD44870f5B7cC785051a77D. Leising covers market structure at Bloomberg News in New York. To contact the author of this story: Matthew Leising inNew York at [email protected] To contact the editor responsible for this story: Joel Weber at [email protected]
THE recent surge in the price of Bitcoins has created an unprecedented wave of interest in the cryptocurrency. Once the domain of computer geeks and speculative investors, the meteoric rise in the price has forced Bitcoin into the public spotlight and it has become the hot topic of debate around the water coolers as well as in the bars, restaurants and hair salons. Some dismiss it as a passing fad, a bubble waiting to burst and an elaborate Ponzi scheme, while others claim it the greatest innovation since the internet, the currency of the future and a great way to make quick money. Who is right and who is wrong? Bitcoins are traded on a number of exchanges around the world and, as with any other market, whether it is oil, wheat futures, share options or the price of bagels in downtown Manhattan, the price is determined by supply and demand. Some investment gurus such as Warren Buffett believe the hockey stick shape of the Bitcoin price cannot be explained by traditional supply and demand dynamics. The meteoric rise in the Bitcoin price has been caused by an investment frenzy triggered by the hype surrounding the cryptocurrency concept which has gripped the imagination of the public. It has all the hallmarks of a speculative bubble which they believe could burst at any moment. An investment bubble occurs when the price of a commodity rises way beyond the intrinsic value of the item. The sudden rise in price creates a lot of publicity and tales of instant wealth and overnight millionaires lure new investors into the market. As the price continues to rise, the fear of missing out (the Fomo factor) attracts even more investors, driving prices up further. The cycle repeats itself until the price reaches a tipping point and the market collapses overnight. There have been a number of well documented examples in the past, from the Tulip Mania that gripped the Dutch in the 17th Century to the tech boom in the late 1990s, the housing crash of 2006 and the commodities bust in 2009. During the tech boom in the 1990s, for example, the share prices of web-based businesses reached astronomical proportions. Gripped by what the US Federal Reserve Board chairperson at the time, Alan Greenspan, called “irrational exuberance”, seasoned investors and regular consumers clambered to get a piece of the action and make a quick buck. At the time, nobody really understood what the internet was, let alone what its long-term implications were, but this did not deter people from selling the proverbial farm and buying tech stocks at almost any price. As share prices soared, some of the most obscure, and often unprofitable, internet based companies had market capitalizations in the millions and sometimes billions of dollars. Despite some spectacular failures and the poor financial results published by those who managed to survive for longer than a year, the investment frenzy continued unabated. In early 2000, however, the market seemed to come to its senses. Prices began to decline and then started plummeting as panic swept through the market. The tech market eventually collapsed, leaving many investors penniless and the world economy in a recession. A number of investment gurus see many similarities between the tech boom and bust of the ’90s and the Bitcoin market at the moment. At the current price level, Bitcoin has a market capitalization of over $200 billion, which is $70bn more than the value of General Electric and greater than the gross domestic product of some countries. As Buffett put it in 2014: “The idea that (Bitcoin) has some huge intrinsic value is just a joke in my view. Bitcoin is not backed by a company’s earnings or the strength of a government and rule of law. There’s also no interest or dividends.” At the time Bitcoin was priced at about $600 and is now trading above $14 000, but he is sticking to his guns and in October 2017 stated that Bitcoin “is a real bubble”. On the other side of the argument, there are those who believe that the internet and social media have created a new mindset in modern society which makes the concept of a global currency that cannot be controlled by any government an alluring concept that has caught the imagination of the public. Anyone who owns Bitcoin achieves a degree of economic freedom which was not possible before. They can send value across the world without having to ask for permission from a bank or government body and Bitcoin cannot be taxed, controlled, destroyed or confiscated. A central bank cannot print more Bitcoins to control the money supply and manipulate the price either. It is free from global recessions, government financial mismanagement and unfair taxpayer-funded bailouts. This utopian view of an international currency free of interference by big government is the primary reason for the high value placed on Bitcoin by the public. Demand is being driven not by traditional investors, but by a wave of internet-savvy pundits who believe that Bitcoin will become the de facto method of payment in the future. In a digital age we need a digital currency and the current price, they claim, reflects the future expectations of the market. The high prices are not a reflection of Bitcoin’s current value, they say, but rather its potential value. Another factor driving up the Bitcoin price is the expectation that big financial players are set to wade into the market. The Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) recently introduced Bitcoin derivatives – a bet on the future value of the currency – which allows hedge funds to enter the market. Some speculate that big players such as JP Morgan, Goldman Sachs and Merrill Lynch could enter the market in 2018 and offer Bitcoin as part of a high-risk portfolio to clients. Once the large investment houses start buying Bitcoins, demand will skyrocket and the price will rise to even greater heights. If Bitcoin fulfils its original purpose and becomes the medium of exchange on the internet and is accepted in more brick and mortar stores, the demand will rise even further. Bitcoin enthusiasts believe it is likely to fulfil that role and the high Bitcoin price indicates the market agrees. The Bitcoin market, however, is still in its infancy and is extremely volatile as widely differing opinions about its future cause the price to fluctuate wildly. Those who got in early are making huge returns on their investment and it may be tempting to jump on the bandwagon and get a slice of the action, but Bitcoin should still be considered a risky investment. Some say Bitcoin is a solution looking for a problem. It could become the next global payment system, but it could just as easily fail or fall away. It would be wise to adopt a rational and cautious approach and as with any prudent investment strategy – only invest as much as you are willing to lose. THREATS & CHALLENGES BITCOIN faces a number of challenges which detractors believe could reduce demand in the short term and threaten its existence in the long term: Rising prices Ironically, Bitcoin’s is its own worst enemy. Rapidly rising prices are not a desirable feature of a currency. If someone believes the Bitcoin price is likely to rise and will be worth more in the future, they would be reluctant to spend it on something now. Its success undermines its usefulness. Some analysts believe that market volatility and continually rising prices will prevent Bitcoin from fulfilling its purpose as a global payment system. Security The blockchain itself is considered totally secure and virtually hack-proof. It has withstood intense scrutiny by mathematical and computer experts and to date there haven’t been attacks on the blockchain itself that has led to money being stolen. Bitcoin’s biggest vulnerability is the integrity and security of the exchanges and wallet programs that store Bitcoins on behalf of users. Some have gone bust while others have suffered cyber-attacks in which hackers have made off with huge sums. Further reports of successful cyber heists could shake investors’ confidence in the cryptocurrency, causing a sell-off and a sharp decline in its price. Speed The blockchain is spread over thousands of computers globally, which compete with each other to verify transactions. Although this is at the core of its security, it is a highly inefficient system and means Bitcoin can only process a handful of transactions a second. Centralised payment processors, like Visa, process thousands of transactions a second, which makes it more attractive to large retailers as a payment system. Amazon, for example, processed 600 transactions a second during last year’s Amazon prime sale. If even a fraction of their traffic decided to pay with cryptocurrency, consumers would be stuck for hours waiting for their transactions to be processed. Rival coins There are other cryptocurrencies already on the market which are a lot faster. Ripple, for example, can process 1500 transactions a second. Bitcoin wields first-mover advantage, accounting for about 61% of the cryptocurrencies, but there is nothing to prevent any of the alternative coins from usurping Bitcoin. Amazon is an innovative tech giant with huge clout in the internet industry and there are rumours they are looking into developing their own cryptocurrency, which could provide a serious challenge to Bitcoin. Power consumption Some experts believe an environmental crisis is looming if Bitcoin continues on its current trajectory. The complex computer algorithms that underpin Bitcoin require huge data centres that guzzle power. One observer predicts that without a significant change in how transactions are processed, Bitcoin could be consuming enough electricity to power the US by the middle of 2019. Six months later, that demand could equal the entire world’s power consumption. Over-regulation Many countries worldwide are investigating Bitcoin and starting to recognise it as a realistic threat. Controlling the money supply is a vital economic and political lever which governments are reluctant to abdicate to a cryptocurrency. Its anonymity and lack of central control, however, makes it difficult to control and it seems that in the short term their only course of action is to regulate it out of existence. China recently clamped down on cryptocurrency exchanges and Russia has been openly talking about the prospect of creating its own state-controlled cryptocurrency.
The following post by Furburger1 is being replicated because some comments within the post(but not the post itself) have been silently removed. The original post can be found(in censored form) at this link: np.reddit.com/ Bitcoin/comments/7qdi7n The original post's content was as follows:
THE recent surge in the price of Bitcoins has created an unprecedented wave of interest in the cryptocurrency. Once the domain of computer geeks and speculative investors, the meteoric rise in the price has forced Bitcoin into the public spotlight and it has become the hot topic of debate around the water coolers as well as in the bars, restaurants and hair salons. Some dismiss it as a passing fad, a bubble waiting to burst and an elaborate Ponzi scheme, while others claim it the greatest innovation since the internet, the currency of the future and a great way to make quick money. Who is right and who is wrong? Bitcoins are traded on a number of exchanges around the world and, as with any other market, whether it is oil, wheat futures, share options or the price of bagels in downtown Manhattan, the price is determined by supply and demand. Some investment gurus such as Warren Buffett believe the hockey stick shape of the Bitcoin price cannot be explained by traditional supply and demand dynamics. The meteoric rise in the Bitcoin price has been caused by an investment frenzy triggered by the hype surrounding the cryptocurrency concept which has gripped the imagination of the public. It has all the hallmarks of a speculative bubble which they believe could burst at any moment. An investment bubble occurs when the price of a commodity rises way beyond the intrinsic value of the item. The sudden rise in price creates a lot of publicity and tales of instant wealth and overnight millionaires lure new investors into the market. As the price continues to rise, the fear of missing out (the Fomo factor) attracts even more investors, driving prices up further. The cycle repeats itself until the price reaches a tipping point and the market collapses overnight. There have been a number of well documented examples in the past, from the Tulip Mania that gripped the Dutch in the 17th Century to the tech boom in the late 1990s, the housing crash of 2006 and the commodities bust in 2009. During the tech boom in the 1990s, for example, the share prices of web-based businesses reached astronomical proportions. Gripped by what the US Federal Reserve Board chairperson at the time, Alan Greenspan, called “irrational exuberance”, seasoned investors and regular consumers clambered to get a piece of the action and make a quick buck. At the time, nobody really understood what the internet was, let alone what its long-term implications were, but this did not deter people from selling the proverbial farm and buying tech stocks at almost any price. As share prices soared, some of the most obscure, and often unprofitable, internet based companies had market capitalizations in the millions and sometimes billions of dollars. Despite some spectacular failures and the poor financial results published by those who managed to survive for longer than a year, the investment frenzy continued unabated. In early 2000, however, the market seemed to come to its senses. Prices began to decline and then started plummeting as panic swept through the market. The tech market eventually collapsed, leaving many investors penniless and the world economy in a recession. A number of investment gurus see many similarities between the tech boom and bust of the ’90s and the Bitcoin market at the moment. At the current price level, Bitcoin has a market capitalization of over $200 billion, which is $70bn more than the value of General Electric and greater than the gross domestic product of some countries. As Buffett put it in 2014: “The idea that (Bitcoin) has some huge intrinsic value is just a joke in my view. Bitcoin is not backed by a company’s earnings or the strength of a government and rule of law. There’s also no interest or dividends.” At the time Bitcoin was priced at about $600 and is now trading above $14 000, but he is sticking to his guns and in October 2017 stated that Bitcoin “is a real bubble”. On the other side of the argument, there are those who believe that the internet and social media have created a new mindset in modern society which makes the concept of a global currency that cannot be controlled by any government an alluring concept that has caught the imagination of the public. Anyone who owns Bitcoin achieves a degree of economic freedom which was not possible before. They can send value across the world without having to ask for permission from a bank or government body and Bitcoin cannot be taxed, controlled, destroyed or confiscated. A central bank cannot print more Bitcoins to control the money supply and manipulate the price either. It is free from global recessions, government financial mismanagement and unfair taxpayer-funded bailouts. This utopian view of an international currency free of interference by big government is the primary reason for the high value placed on Bitcoin by the public. Demand is being driven not by traditional investors, but by a wave of internet-savvy pundits who believe that Bitcoin will become the de facto method of payment in the future. In a digital age we need a digital currency and the current price, they claim, reflects the future expectations of the market. The high prices are not a reflection of Bitcoin’s current value, they say, but rather its potential value. Another factor driving up the Bitcoin price is the expectation that big financial players are set to wade into the market. The Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) recently introduced Bitcoin derivatives – a bet on the future value of the currency – which allows hedge funds to enter the market. Some speculate that big players such as JP Morgan, Goldman Sachs and Merrill Lynch could enter the market in 2018 and offer Bitcoin as part of a high-risk portfolio to clients. Once the large investment houses start buying Bitcoins, demand will skyrocket and the price will rise to even greater heights. If Bitcoin fulfils its original purpose and becomes the medium of exchange on the internet and is accepted in more brick and mortar stores, the demand will rise even further. Bitcoin enthusiasts believe it is likely to fulfil that role and the high Bitcoin price indicates the market agrees. The Bitcoin market, however, is still in its infancy and is extremely volatile as widely differing opinions about its future cause the price to fluctuate wildly. Those who got in early are making huge returns on their investment and it may be tempting to jump on the bandwagon and get a slice of the action, but Bitcoin should still be considered a risky investment. Some say Bitcoin is a solution looking for a problem. It could become the next global payment system, but it could just as easily fail or fall away. It would be wise to adopt a rational and cautious approach and as with any prudent investment strategy – only invest as much as you are willing to lose. THREATS & CHALLENGES BITCOIN faces a number of challenges which detractors believe could reduce demand in the short term and threaten its existence in the long term: Rising prices Ironically, Bitcoin’s is its own worst enemy. Rapidly rising prices are not a desirable feature of a currency. If someone believes the Bitcoin price is likely to rise and will be worth more in the future, they would be reluctant to spend it on something now. Its success undermines its usefulness. Some analysts believe that market volatility and continually rising prices will prevent Bitcoin from fulfilling its purpose as a global payment system. Security The blockchain itself is considered totally secure and virtually hack-proof. It has withstood intense scrutiny by mathematical and computer experts and to date there haven’t been attacks on the blockchain itself that has led to money being stolen. Bitcoin’s biggest vulnerability is the integrity and security of the exchanges and wallet programs that store Bitcoins on behalf of users. Some have gone bust while others have suffered cyber-attacks in which hackers have made off with huge sums. Further reports of successful cyber heists could shake investors’ confidence in the cryptocurrency, causing a sell-off and a sharp decline in its price. Speed The blockchain is spread over thousands of computers globally, which compete with each other to verify transactions. Although this is at the core of its security, it is a highly inefficient system and means Bitcoin can only process a handful of transactions a second. Centralised payment processors, like Visa, process thousands of transactions a second, which makes it more attractive to large retailers as a payment system. Amazon, for example, processed 600 transactions a second during last year’s Amazon prime sale. If even a fraction of their traffic decided to pay with cryptocurrency, consumers would be stuck for hours waiting for their transactions to be processed. Rival coins There are other cryptocurrencies already on the market which are a lot faster. Ripple, for example, can process 1500 transactions a second. Bitcoin wields first-mover advantage, accounting for about 61% of the cryptocurrencies, but there is nothing to prevent any of the alternative coins from usurping Bitcoin. Amazon is an innovative tech giant with huge clout in the internet industry and there are rumours they are looking into developing their own cryptocurrency, which could provide a serious challenge to Bitcoin. Power consumption Some experts believe an environmental crisis is looming if Bitcoin continues on its c...
KICKOUT! Still not particularly even paying attention to the kickouts, Kait pops to her feet and runs back to the corner. She ascends to the top rope as Lee stirs confusedly on the mat. Kait: I think I’m READY TO FALL! The crowd pops to see a shooting star press, but, in the split second Kait took to say that, Lee makes it to his feet and rushes to the corner, knocking her off balance and “nutting”(perhaps “cunting”?) her on the turnbuckle. Paisner: Sometimes playing to the fans can be a competitor’s downfall! Woodbridge: And what a shame! She had really built up a nice head of steam! Lee grabs Kait and pulls her out towards the center of the ring, her feet catching on the turnbuckle. Lee drops her down with a sickening corner DDT that receives boos from the paying audience. He smugly gives them all the Vulcan salute before going for the pin. 1! 2! KICKOUT! Lee sits up, frustrated at the referee for “counting slow”. He gets up and gets in Itchicock’s face. Lee: One, Two, Three! You imbecile! Woodbridge: Showing shades of his master, Kyle Scott! Paisner: By arguing with the ref? Woodbridge: By being a massive cunt. Lee pushes Itchicock, but before he can abuse the ref into a DQ, he notices that Kait has pulled herself into the corner to catch her breath. A smile crosses his lips and he dead sprints towards her, flipping himself forward for the Blob Ball. At the last possible second, Kaiit rolls out of the way, letting Logan slam into the corner directly on his back and head. Paisner: Ring awareness by Kaitlyn! Think she baited him into going for that move? Woodbridge: The world may never know, Allen. But I wouldn’t put it past her. They both lay on the mat, catching their breath, as Itchicock begins to make the ten count. 1! 2! 3! Still no movement from either of them. 4! 5! 6! Kaitlyn begins to stir, bringing herself to one knee. She uses the ropes, and pulls herself all the way up. Kait leans against the ropes for a moment, further catching her breath, as Lee uses the same tactic to first get to a knee, and then bring himself to his feet. Lee turns in Kait’s direction and they lock eyes. Kait gets off the ropes and motions for Lee to bring it. Lee rushes at Kaitlyn with the speed of a runaway train. She passes him through, sending him into the ropes and rebounding back in her direction. She drops down and Lee steps over her as he runs to the other side of the ring, once again rebounding and heading Kait’s way. This time, she catches him with a beautiful hip toss on his way back, but his momentum helps him almost immediately back up to his feet. He runs at her again, and is again brought down with a hip toss. Slightly slower this time, Lee pops back to his feet and tries running at her one more time. Paisner: When did Kait get a “Five Moves of Doom” sequence? Woodbridge: Are you comparing her to Jack Senpai, Allen? Paisner: No. I’m comparing what she’s doing right now to Jack Senpai. As Lee gets closer to her, Kait jumps up to deliver the final blow, a beautiful hurricanrana. However, before she can finish the move, Lee somehow finds the strength to stop her momentum and slam her onto the mat with what can only be described as a reversal pop-up powerbomb. Paisner: Oh shit! I take it back! THAT is a move of doom! Lee falls on top of Kaitlyn, breathless. He manages to lift her leg for the pin. 1! 2! 3! Woodbridge: No! Kait able to kick out at two point a gnat’s cunt hair! Paisner: Is that a measurement, Mark? Woodbridge: Well, Kaitlyn just did it! So it is now, Allen! Lee sits up and stares in disbelief at the ref. He wipes sweat off his brow and slams his hands on the mat. Lee: STAY DOWN YOU DUMB BITCH! Lee gets up and begins pacing around, waiting for Kaitlyn to slowly stagger to her feet. As she’s about to be all the way up, Lee begins rotating for his patented spinning backfist. Woodbridge: This could be it!! But, with her last spurt of energy, Kait jumps up as Logan is about to finish his rotation, wrapping her arm around his head and bringing him down with. . . Paisner:D-D-DROP THE FACE BY KAIT! Kait barely manages to crawl on top of Lee and grab his leg for the pin. 1! 2! BLACKOUT Paisner: Oh fuck me. The lights come back on to reveal Brodie Hansen in the center of the ring, Kait now full of energy and already up to get in his face. The two butt heads as Lee slowly comes to on the mat. He looks up at the sight above him and his eyes widen. Lee: Fuck that! He rolls under the bottom rope and hightails it up the ramp and to the back. Woodbridge: Smart move by, Logan Lee. I don’t think this’ll be pretty. Paisner: So just another match gets ruled a no contest because of Brodie Hansen?! Woodbridge: You want to go tell him to stop? Paisner: LADIES AND GENTLEMEN AT HOME IT APPEARS THIS MATCH WILL BE A NO CONTEST! The tension rises as Brodie and Kait exchange murderous stares. The crowd stays deadly silent, not wanting to be the reason this explodes. Over the silence, the voices of Brodie and Kaitlyn in the ring can be heard. Brodie: You’re very frustrating, little bird. Kaitlyn: Yeah. Well, you’re an inbred cunt. And with that they erupt in a fist fight that would put Ali and Tyson to shame. The sounds of fists upon flesh reverberate through the arena with sickening clarity. Their collision resembles a tornado of hatred going over a trailer park of nazi methheads. That is to say, it isn’t pretty. Somehow, Kait is able to get the upper hand and begins backing Brodie into a corner with fist after fist to the gut and jaw of the giant. Woodbridge: Jesus! That’s some serious power behind those hooks by Kaitlyn! Paisner: I’m pretty sure she would’ve broken most of the locker room’s jaws at this point! The boiling hatred between these two is reaching a real tipping point! Once Brodie is up against the turnbuckle, Kait goes from fists to kicks. She kicks at the big man’s legs furiously and with a speed resembling a thrash beat. Brodie’s knees begin to buckle as his massive frame sways in the corner. Kaitlyn continues kicking, each one seemingly harder than the last. Before the giant can topple, Brodie shoots his hand out and wraps it around the throat of Kaitlyn. Her kicking stops and they meet eyes, Brodie squeezing harder and turning Kaitlyn’s face a gross blue color. Using all the force he can muster, The Beast shoves forward, effectively shoving Kaitlyn back and to the ground by her throat. Either with a quick lunge or an exhausted fall, Brodie takes to the mat as well and mounts the much smaller woman. He begins throwing elbows to the face and temples of Kaitlyn, making eerily certain to slam the points directly on the worst spots of the skull. Paisner: Two months, going on three, these two have been at it! At this point I’m surprised neither has legitimately tried to kill the other! Woodbridge: Didn’t Brodie have goons a little bit ago? Paisner: I’m talking about these two killing each other! Let’s not bring up other people or else this will get really hard to get past the FCC! Once Brodie’s made sure Kaitlyn is good and concussed, he gets off of her and rolls under the bottom rope. He takes a moment outside to stretch out his sore legs and try to shake the pain off. He then heads to the railing separating the fans from the action and reaches out, literally pulling a chair out from under the ass of a fan. As he walks away and is showered in boos, he casually flips the bird back in the direction of the fans. He slides the chair into the ring and follows close behind, his eyes revealing nothing but malintent in his heart. Paisner: I feel like we should be trying to stop this. Brodie picks the chair back up once in the ring and begins to taunt the fans, teasing slamming it onto the head of the near unconscious Kaitlyn on the mat. As the boos get louder, Brodie’s swings of the chair get closer and closer to her head. Right before actually hitting her in the head with the chair, Brodie stops. He looks at the chair and then at Kaitlyn. . . . and then at the corner. He grabs Kaitlyn by her leg and pulls her close to the corner. He opens the chair slightly and slides Kaitlyn’s neck inside, his intentions becoming grossly clear. Woodbridge: Jesus fucking Christ! I refuse to watch this! I’m turning my back to this! Paisner: FUCKING SHIT! SOMEONE AT HOME CALL THE COPS! Brodie backs into the corner, ascending to the second rope. He stares down at Kaitlyn helpless on the mat, I smile so sinister that it would give the Devil himself chills crossing Brodie’s lips. Brodie: NO MORE CHANCES, LITTLE BIRD! TIME TO CLIP YOUR WINGS! Brodie readys himself to jump off the rope and slam his massive foot into the chair, surely paralyzing Kait. BUT!! Right before Brodie can jump onto the chair, a fan in a black jacket jumps the barrier! They hightail it to the corner and shove Brodie off with urgency, his massive frame barely missing landing on the chair anyway! Before Brodie has a chance to even understand what is happening, the fan slides into the ring and begins to deliver sick kicks to Brodie again and again! Paisner: MARK! MARK! SOMEONE SAVED HER! JESUS, SOMEONE SAVED HER! Woodbridge: What!? Who is it!? With little understanding of what is even happening, Brodie begins to roll to and under the ropes. He backs up the ramp, furious as the fan turns their attention to the barely moving Kaitlyn Casey Jones. The fan gets the chair from around her neck and begins to help her up. She manages to look up, and her jaw drops when she sees the fan’s face. After helping her all the way to her feet, the fan turns to finally meet eyes with the monster on the ramp. Brodie becomes even more enraged at what he sees. Paisner: Holy shit! It’s Lucian Alexander! Brodie’s cousin is back and he saved Kait! Woodbridge: We knew he had left NEXT, but I don’t think anyone knew he was here tonight! Lucian stares his cousin down as the fans chant their appreciation. Crowd: THIS IS AWESOME! clap clap clapclapclap THIS IS AWESOME! clap clap clapclapclap Brodie: You’re dead, you fuck! You’ve made a terrible decision coming back! Brodie makes his way up the ramp and to the back, never taking his eyes off Lucian and Kaitlyn in the ring. Lucian then helps Kait make her way out of the ring and begins to motion for some sort of medical assistance as we fade out. We return to the dark streets of Le Havre, a beautiful classic car pulls up, and out from it emerges a "well dressed" man of Asian decent. Both groups exit their car and converge on one another Asian Fella: Alssalam ealaykum 'akhi Kyle Scott: Ealaykum 'an al'akh salam Mahmud Mahmud: W... lughan 'aetaqid? Scott: Yes, this is my right hand man, Logan; he doesn't speak much of the mother tongue Lee Yasrakh alghajr? Mahmud: Indeed, screaming gypsies. Gentlemen, if you'll follow me to the back of the car The three men proceed to the back of the car where Mahmud unleashes a stockpile the likes of which have never before been seen (in the boot of a budget car). Lee: What the fuck... Mahmud: As you can see we have all manner of weapons, from World War 1 rifle, World War 2 rifle, all they way through to Korean war rifle. This is how you say... the high tech shit Scott: You don't say... Mahmud: Oh I do say, I just said it Scott: You.. what? It's an expression Lee: Can we get this over with? It's all very uncomfortable Mahmud: Fine, fine. Weapons you see here are not all I have, you pick and I dispatch them instantly Lee: How? Mahmud: Amazon drone of course! Scott: So, how do we do this? Mahmud: Very simple Mahmud somehow pulls a computer down from the rear door of his car Mahmud: Select the "Fruit & Vag" section, all weapons available you see there Lee: Ahaha Mahmud: What? What amuses you? Lee: Nothing, I swear Scott: You said vag Mahmud: What? What is this vag? Lee: Lady penis Mahmud: That is... vile Scott: Mhm, so I just choose the weapon and enter the amount? Mahmud: Correct Scott: How do I pay? Mahmud: I accept a variety of payments, Visa, Subway Subcard, Bitcoin, anything you think of Scott: I'll pay with my Subcard, God knows I've got more than enough points Kyle struggles to pull his wallet from his jeans, almost as if he's trying to conceal something. His wallet falls to the floor and he scrambles to retrieve it from under the car. Hastily he puts it into the machine and "pays" Scott: OK, well Brother Mahmud, it's been a pleasure. I hope this helps your cause as much as it helps mine Mahmud: Ladayk baladi alttaqdir 'akhi Kyle. Shaqiq lujan. Tawdie Scott & Logan: Tawdie Scott hurries the two of them back to their van and they speed off leaving a trail of dust Lee: What's the hurry? Kyle pulls something from his coat pocket Lee: HOLY SHIT! Where did you get that? Scott: Stole it from Mahmud Lee: Do you know how rare this is? And in French no less Scott: No, but what I do know is that Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, the President of Mongolia is a closet fan of the Pokemon TCG. Instead of going to war, we bribe him with this card Lee: What about the guns? Scott: We sell them to ISIS, double our money Lee: For real? Scott: Yeah, how else are we supposed to conquer the Middle East unless they fuck it up? Lee: Jesus... I don't know if I like this Scott: You can have the card after we deal with Tsakhi Lee: Oh right, it's fine then A phone begins ringing, Logan presses the button to put it on hands free Mahmud: Kyle, hayth alllaenat hu bitaqati mariu? Hunak 6 faqat fi alealam! Scott: Yumaris aljins mae 'ukhtuk Kyle hangs up as the rear window shatters, a plume of smoke can be seen rising in the distance Lee: Did... did you blow his car up? Scott: What?! No! No no no, must've been a terror plot gone wrong... Commercial Kaitlyn and Lucian sit backstage. Kait is nursing her injuries while Lucy greets passing WiR staff members. Kaitlyn: Thanks for that. Lucian: Of course. I wasn’t going to let him paralyze you. Kait nods, thinking. Kaitlyn: Why were you here? Lucian stops greeting people and turns his full attention to Kait. Lucian: What do you mean? Kaitlyn: France is pretty far from Arkansas. And I assume you had to buy a ticket. Lucy chuckles lightly. Lucian: Yeah. I wanted to meet with Moxie after the show. Talk about maybe coming back. But then that happened, and I couldn’t just be a bystander, you know? Kaitlyn thinks for a moment. Kaitlyn: Yeah. That makes sense. Thanks. Just then, a slender, sexy woman comes walking down the hall, a huge business smile across her face. Moxie Moon: I believe I heard my name! Moxie walks over to the two and hugs Lucian, giving him a French kiss on the cheek with her welcome.She goes to do the same to Kaitlyn, but as Kaitlyn leans up to oblige she winces in pain. Moxie looks the two over before talking. Moxie: That was quite a match you had with Logan Lee, Ms. Jones. I’m sure it would have been a real barn burner had the World Champion not decided to interfere. Kait nods, picking up an icepack and holding it to her head. Moxie: And you… Moxie turns to Lucian. Moxie: There’s no telling what your cousin would have done to her if you hadn’t come to the rescue. Lucian: The thing that holds your belt is not my cousin, Moxie. Moxie: Fair enough, Mr. Alexander. Moxie claps her hands together, a sudden excitement seemingly taking over her demeanor. Moxie: Now! Since the pleasantries are out of the way, time to talk the real reason I came and found you two! Kaitlyn, you seem determined to have another go at Brodie’s title, and I’m perfectly willing to provide that. However, the large man has a certain way for persuasion, and he made it clear that if you were going to get another chance; you’d have to earn it. So that’s what you’ll do next week! Next week you’ll get your official number one contendership match for a chance to prove yourself! Kaitlyn’s eyes light up and a smile crosses her lips for the first time since we’ve seen her tonight. Moxie: But! It won’t be easy, Ms. Jones. I can’t go just sticking you in another match with AKI Man to make it impossible for you to lose. No. Not at all. Instead, your opponent will be a former tag team champion, former member of NYS’s developmental NEXT program, and your savior tonight! Kaitlyn and Lucian look at each other, surprised. Moxie: That’s right, darlings. What could be better for ratings? Moxie lets out a smug laugh before waving at them and beginning to walk away. Moxie: Tah-tah! See you next week! Lucian begins to nod, wearily, as Kaitlyn continues just to stare at the man who possibly saved her life. Before any words can be exchanged, a voice is heard off camera down the hall. Andrew “Dragon” Garcia: HOLY SHIIIIIIIII!!! Lucian turns his attention to the direction of his old friend, and a smile explodes across his face. He walks out of frame as Kaitlyn continues to stare off, now into the distance. Lucian: Hermandad de fibra de baja moral para la vida! Rubble Kings Theme (Dynamite) by Run The Jewels hits, and a lone spotlight appears on the ramp, revealing Santiago Martinez standing in the light, holding his stolen independent title, raising it high above his head like he's the actual champion. Javier: Introducing first, from Coral Gables, Florida; by way of Medellin, Colombia, weighing in at 214 pounds, standing 6 foot 2, Santiago Martinez! Crowd: BOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO! Paisner: Last Week, Santiago Martinez returned after 3 months in a huge way, with he and his cartel goons taking out his opponent here tonight Russ Reynolds, and the Independent Champion Dragon, and as you can see here, Martinez took Dragon's title belt in the process. Woodbridge: While Santiago sure as hell made a statement last week, I have a question whether this decision may come back to haunt him, pissing off Dragon isn't usually a good decision, Russ Reynolds has proven time and time again to be an outstanding competitor, depending on whether Santiago is rusty or not may determine whether this all turns out well or not. Santiago walks down, belt still raised high in the air, he talks some shit with fans around ringside, before hopping up onto the apron, jumping over the ropes into the ring, and awaiting Reynold's arrival. Rainbow In The Dark by Dio plays, as Reynolds busts out from behind the curtain, a focused look on his face, as he walks down to the ring. Javier: And introducing, from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, weighing in at 215 pounds, standing at 6 feet, "Danger" Russ Reynolds! Crowd: YAYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY! Paisner: And Reynolds coming down with a purpose tonight! He has to be upset after finally getting Rang off of him, only for Santiago to come out and make a statement out of him, while also hurting his chances of beating Dragon and gaining an independent title shot. Woodbridge: And that purpose may be his rise, or his downfall, either he stays focused and on his game, or he gets driven to too much anger, and get sloppy, which would most certainly cost him the match. Reynolds quickly throws some fist bumps to some fans, as he walks down to the ring, eventually getting up on the ring apron, staring down Martinez, he steps into the ring, as Tai Ni Wong calls for the bell. DING DING DING Russ and Martinez circle each other, and stare at each other, before Russ rushes in at Santiago! Reynolds quickly grabs Santiago's legs and drives him into a corner! Reynolds then starts deliver shoulder thrusts to Martinez, before stopping that, and starting to chop away at Martinez in the corner! After the chops, Russ whips Martinez into another corner, where Russ runs at him with an amazing dropkick right to the gave of Martinez! Martinez falls to the ground and out the ring holding at his face! Crowd: YAYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY! Woodbridge: Russ starting this match with fire! Martinez leans on the guardrail outside, as Russ calls for him to get back in the ring, Martinez circles the ring for a moment, before slowly sliding in, and facing Russ again, they once again circle each other, and this time Santiago is the one who charges! Doing the same thing as Russ by picking him up and driving him into a corner, but rather than going for shoulder thrusts, Santiago decides to slap Russ across the face! Crowd: BOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO! Santiago quickly backs off, with a smug smirk across his face, as Russ tries to go after him, but Wong restrains him so things don't get out of control, Wong eventually unrestrains Russ, who's calmed down, but still clearly irked at Santiago's disrespect, they circle for the third time, and they close in on each other and lock up for a collar and elbow tie-up, but as soon as they lock up, Santiago decides to forgo the technical wrestling, and just knees Reynolds in the gut! Dropping Reynolds to his knees! Santiago then grabs Reynolds head, and starts to deliver repeated knees to the side of Russ's head! Picking his head back up everytime it falls to the ground. Santiago eventually releases Russ's head, and it just falls to the ground, Russ clearly already a bit out of it from all the knees. Santiago kicks at Russ's head a few times, before running the ropes, he reaches Russ, but jumps over him to continue running the ropes, he then repeats that process once reaching Russ again! He then continues running! And then completely stops his momentum, and lightly tapping Russ's head. Crowd: BOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO! Santiago looks out at the crowd booing him, and flips all them off! Crowd: BOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO! Paisner: Santiago riling up this crowd, and he seems to love every moment of it. Santiago gets back over to Russ, sits him up, and then runs the ropes real quick to deliver a stiff kick to Russ's back! Russ grits his teeth and falls back in pain, as Santiago quickly gets on the ground with him, and repeatedly elbows Russ in the face with stiff strike and stiff strike! Santiago then picks up Russ grabs his head, runs with him, and drives his head into the top turnbuckle! Russ's head bounces off the turnbuckle, so Santiago gives him a european uppercut to the back of the head! Russ falls back into the corner, face resting on the turnbuckle, as Santiago runs off to the opposite corner, and rushes back with a superkick to the back of Russ's head! The head trauma from the kick and being driven into turnbuckle causes him to slide down and fall to the ground! Santiago looks down at Russ and laughs, as he casually pushes Russ out the ring with his foot, and yells at Wong to start counting! Crowd: BOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO! While Wong starts to count, Santiago parades around the ring taunting the crowd, flipping them off, and talking shit. Wong hits 7 and Russ starts to stir on the outside, trying to get to the ring apron! The count of 11 hits, and he gets his fingers on the ring apron! But Santiago rushes over, and stomps on Russ's fingers! Russ screams and holds his fingers, as Santiago decides to slide out the ring, picks Russ up, and tosses him straight into the barricade! And then into the ringpost! And then once again into the barricade! Crowd: OHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH! Paisner: Russ could be in real trouble here! Santiago's controlled the match and hasn't shown signs of rust, Russ might need luck on his side tonight! Russ lays on the grounds in pain, staring up at the ceiling, as Santiago goes to pick him up, and tosses him in the ring where he covers Russ! 1! 2! No! Kickout by Russ at 2! Santiago screams at Wong to count faster after Russ's kickout, and then quickly gets back on Russ, and puts him in a sleeper hold! Crowd: BOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO! Santiago wrenches in the sleeper as tightly as possible, squeezing as much air as he can out of Russ, who struggles and flails around to try and get out. Santiago screams various insults at the fans in attendance, as Russ' flailing gets less and less motion to it. With Santiago's grip only getting harder and harder until he's gripping Russ's neck like an anaconda! Crowd: RUSS! RUSS! RUSS! RUSS! RUSS! RUSS! Santiago: Why do you all need to chant? It's not like he had blood in his head in the first place! Crowd: BOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO! All the veins on Santiago's body almost pop right out of his skin as he clenches in the sleeper more and more, as the chants seem to not be doing much for Russ, as he's starting to fade more and more, with his face becoming noticebly paler by the second! With Santiago screaming as he clenches and clenches! Crowd: RUSS! RUSS! RUSS! RUSS! RUSS! RUSS! Wong decides to go over to Russ, and check on his condition, he checks him real quick, and then decides to raise Russ's arm, and it drops! Crowd: No! Wong then lifts Russ's arm again, and once again it drops! Crowd: No! Wong then lifts Russ's arm one last time, and just as it seems as Russ's arm is about to hit the ground once again, he stops of arm from falling and lifts it up! Crowd: YAYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY! Russ feeds off the energy of the crowd, and he starts to slowly, but surely get to his feet, as Santiago desperately tries, but fails, to get Russ back down! Russ eventually gets to his feet, and starts delivers elbows to the gut of Santiago until he lets go, and eventually, Russ hits enough to get out of the sleeper! Crowd: YAYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY! Woodbridge: Russ got out the sleeper! He may finally get something going! Russ gains back his breath real quick, as Santiago recovers from the elbows rather quickly, and tries to go after Russ with a lariat! But Russ ducks, and he runs the ropes as Santiago rebounds off the ropes himself, they eventually meet in the middle, where Russ drops Santiago with a high knee to the face! Knocking Santiago down! Santiago manages to quickly make it to a corner, but that gives Russ the opportunity to run off to the opposite corner, and come back with a running dropkick to the head of Santiago! Santiago falls in a heap to the ground, as Russ screams for the audience! Crowd: YAYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY! Paisner: Russ with that intense fire and burning passion! Russ walks around the ring, and hypes the crowd up by throwing his arms up, and stomping on the mat, waiting for Santiago to get up. Santiago eventually does, with clear signs of wooziness. Russ walks over to him, hooks him up, and throws him with a northern lights suplex! Russ keeps Santiago hooked, but doesn't bridge, as he rolls through back to his front, and delivers another wonderful norther lights suplex to Santiago! And yet again, Russ does not bridge, but rolls through, and then delivers a third, and lightning quick northern lights to Martinex! Paisner: Aurora Borealis! What strength from Russ! The Bridge! 1! 2! No! Kickout by Martinez! Russ quickly gets back to to business, and picks up Santiago and whips him into a corner, where he hits a running chop to Martinez! The sound of the chop explodes throughout the arena, and Santiago holds at his chest, with his breathing clearly have been offset, Russ looks out to the crowd, and shouts something. Russ: Do you people want another?! Crowd: YES! Russ: You got it! Russ makes sure he keeps Martinez contained in the corner, and then charges up for another chop, before deliver another stinging chop to Martinez's chest that was even louder than the first one! Martinez's eyes nearly bulge out his head, and he tries desperately to get out the corner, but Russ pushes him back in! Russ quickly looks out to the crowd, who instantly start cheering! Getting the message, Russ charges up for another chop, and delivers enough vicious chop to Santiago! The chop sounding like a gun went off in the building, as it seems Santiago has lost all breath in his body! Russ then starts to deliver chops faster and faster, until he's delivering them at a lightning fast pace, with Santiago futilely struggling against the chops! Russ eventually finishes his chops, and whips Santiago into the opposite corner, where he hits Santiago with a running european uppercut! He then whips Santiago back into the original corner, where Russ hits him with another euro uppercut! As Santiago stumbles out the corner, Russ jumps up for a cutter to Santiago! Planting his face in the mat! Russ then rolls the cutter into a Dragon Sleeper submission hold! Crowd: YAYYYYYYYYYYYYYY! RUSS! RUSS! Paisner: Russ's run of fire may end with him getting Santiago to tap out to the Ace Killer! Santiago screams in pain, as Russ clenches and wrenches on the Dragon Sleeper as much as he can! Santiago digs his fingernails into the mat, trying to get a base to crawl to the ropes, but Russ is wrenching so hard, Santiago struggles to move forward, just helplessly moving around in a circle that gets him nowhere! Santiago screams, as he claws and claws to try and move forward, which causes Russ to clench harder! Santiago uses his arms to try and pry Russ's arms off his neck! But this is to no avail, as Russ has too much of a death drip on Santiago, and Santiago is getting less strong each second he stays in the Dragon Sleeper, with his body falling closer and closer to the mat! Russ screams as he sinches in, but suddenly, Santiago manages to make one quick movement, and rolls over!, pinning Russ's shoulders to the mat! Santiago even manages to flip over to put Russ in more predicament! 1! 2! No! Russ at 2 and a half! With the pin Santiago got on him, Russ is forced to completely kick out, releasing his grip on Santiago! Santiago gets up, clearly a bit out of it from all the life being sucked out of him in the sleeper, but he still manages to take his place in a corner, but Russ quickly rushes over to him, and attempts a forearm in the corner! But Santiago gets out, and Russ crashes into the corner, and stumbles out of it holding his back, and Santiago rushes at Russ with a forearm smash of his own! Knocking Russ to the ground! With Russ holding his face in pain! Santiago waits for Russ to get up, and once Russ is almost up, Santiago runs the ropes, and keeps running until Russ gets up, and attempts a slingblade! But Russ forcefully pushes Santiago to the ground! Santiago screams and holds his back, but manages to quickly get up, as Russ quickly hits him with a superkick! Stunning Santiago and turning him facing away from Russ! Russ backs up, and signals for Santiago to turn around! Once Santiago does, Russ runs at him, and goes for the Dangerous Kick!(Jumping Corkscrew Roundhouse Kick) But Santiago manages to duck! And he ends up with his back in front of Santiago, which allows Santiago to take advantage with his "Phantom Pain" Backstabber! Crowd: OHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH! Woodbridge: A wonderful exchange between these two wrestlers! Santiago gaining the advantage with a devastating backstabber! Santiago gets up, and waits for Russ to get up himself, who's holding his back and gritting his teeth in pain! Russ eventually drags himself up by the ropes, and Santiago runs behind him, jumps up on his shoulders, and delivers a reverse frankenstiener to Russ! Crowd: OHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH! Paisner: Jesus! The Set Up from Martinez! Russ may be out! Martinez transistions smoothly out the frankensteiner, gets on the apron, and starts to climb the ropes! He gets to the top turnbuckles, and flips off the crowd with both middle fingers, before attempting a 450 splash! But Russ manages to get his knees up, and Santiago lands right on them! Crowd: OHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH! Santiago bounces off, clutching at his chest to try an get any breath, as Russ tries to regain his composure from the reverse frankensteiner. Russ holds at his head, as he and Santiago both try to get up, Russ manages to get up just quick enough and runs at Santiago with a Dangerous Kick just as Martinez gets up! But Santiago ducks once again, and gets an O'Connor roll on Russ! Santiago grabs a handful of tights! 1! 2! 3! No! Russ manages to kick out despite the tight grab! Both men get up at the same time, and Santiago gets the advantage with a quick forearm to Russ’s face! Santiago then whips Russ into the ropes, and then Santiago runs the ropes himself! They pass each other a few times, before Santiago jumps up, and smashes Russ’s face with a Single Leg Dropkick! Paisner: Cartel Speicial from Santiago! He may be on his way to victory! Santiago looks down at Russ, before doing a throat slice, and making his way to a corner, but suddenly, out of the corner of Santi’s eye, a hulking figure dashes towards him. He turns around, and get gored out of his boots by Andrew Garcia! He pins him down, and Garcia wails down strikes to the head of him as the ref calls for the bell. DING DING DING Dragon elbows the shit out of the downed Martinez, until Russ drags the brute off of him. He gets him up, but Dragon pushes him away and goes back to his man, stomping at him as he scurries away. He runs to the entranceway, as Garcia slides out of the ring and goes to the inside of the apron. He holds up a chair, but drops it, deciding that it just wouldn’t cut it, and goes back to the apron. He drags out, of all things, a ladder from underneath and goes after Santiago. Martinez, wanting no part in what the champ has in mind, keeps running until he makes it to the staircase and go up the staircase. Dragon tosses the set of ladders at him, striking the man in his legs and sending him on to the concrete corner of them. Just then, a few of the masked goons appear, blocking the entrance of the stairways from both sides. Garcia picks up the ladder from the ground, and swings it at the goons, all ducking from it and running off. He turns around and see the target head back up the stairs. He makes it back up, and sees Martinez behind four more goons. Thinking quickly, he rushes at them with the ladder, and pin all five men to the railing, slowly pushing upwards ass if to put great danger in the rudos’ hearts. Reynolds: What the fuck are you doing? Reynolds grabs Dragon from behind, he turns around and holds the ladder on one hand. He moves towards Russ, as he begins to slow back off from the giant. One of the goons uses this as an opportunity to attack him from behind, but he barely budges from the blow to the back. Garcia drops the ladder completely, and focuses his attention on the goon. He grabs him by the throat, covering his entire throats with just one hand, before lifting him high up into the air and chokeslamming him over Santiago and Co’s head into the merch table below. A low crunch can be heard as camera’s cut to the carnage of clothing and ruined gimmicks strewn about. Cut back to Dragon, looking down at Martinez, muttering something along the lines of “violent people”, before turning around and heading down the stairs. Fans run away from the man, as he walks to Maurice’s table. The man looking up at the monster, still muttering those words, as he snatches his title from the table, Maurice running away from it entirely. He turns back around at the two men and points right at them as he raises his title up high, as we fade to black.
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